International relations, especially in the Middle East, will define our generation's period in history. This study focuses on the sociopolitical and historical influences on the foreign policy decisions and intelligence actions of Iran, Israel, and Saudi Arabia. By understanding the culture of these diverse nations in the Middle East, we can better understand the region and and the way it chooses to influence the world.
A brief definition of foreign policy can be given as “the sum of official external relations conducted by an independent actor, usually a state in international relations”. Foreign policy is also seen as attempts by governments to influence or manage events outside the state’s boundaries. Foreign policy is constituted by two fundamental elements: the objectives of a state and the means required for their accomplishment. This book has examined the role of parliament in general as is outlined in the constitution of any state and analyzed whether the Legislature as the elected arm of government has a role in the process of foreign policy formulation and how it has executed this role. Although the study is on the Kenyan Parliament, it has also analyzed other Parliaments or their equivalent across the world for a comparative understanding. Legislation by Parliament in Kenya began about a century ago. Previously, it had wholly been done in the United Kingdom conveyed Orders-in-Council. The Kenyan Parliament’s voice has become more and more vocal over the years. This study concentrates on the period after 1999 because it was the start of a relatively democratic parliament.
Turkish foreign policy faced a paradigmatic transformation in foreign policy as well as domestic politics with respect to mentality, identity, style and rhetoric under Justice and Development Party (JDP-Adalet ve Kalk?nma Partisi-Ak Party) rule. This study also evaluates Turkey’s Middle East policy within the framework of public diplomacy under JDP governments. The ruling party initiated its Middle Eastern policy by highlighting its Muslim identity. Islamic identity opened space for Turkey in its Middle East policy on one hand, while it built the cultural foundation of racing to the top with a Turkey-inspired Islamic model through the country story rhetoric of the public diplomacy in the Muslim world. This public diplomacy and soft power was the most authentic aspect of the AKP government in foreign policy and implemented successfully between 2003-2011 in general and the soft power momentum of Turkey took place particularly between 2005-2010. However, as of 2011, that is with the Arab Spring process, the relations particularly with Syria came to a point of conflict from the soft power peak and it ended up with the fall of soft power in the Turkish foreign policy.
The impact of Oil on relations between any country''s foreign policy toward the Middle East is a hotly debated issue. Indeed, the world''s fixation and need for this fossil fuel will no doubt lead to a race to consume all existing oil reserves. This book looks at the EU''s policy towards said issue, to assess whether it is indeed acting to achieve the illusive Middle East Peace. The seldom used Quantitative Content Analysis method is employed to test this hypothesis, to further its understanding and to shine a different light on the ''problem''. A Neo- Realist lens is adopted in order to set the parameters of the Content Analysis, as it colludes most with the three elements concerned with this study, being: Security, Energy (Oil) Demand and Power/Influence. Whilst the findings of this analysis are not deeply delved into in this study, more of an emphasis is rested on the formulation of the method, so as to create a greater understanding of the discourse of the results, which in turn adds to a more effective/representative method. Therefore gauging the interest of anyone interested in Middle Eastern policy, as well as those engaged with political research methods.
The main purpose of this study tackles the Kurdish question on Turkish Foreign Policy due to external and domestic challenges under the AKP (Justice and Development Party) government. By doing this, it explores what aspects/consequences of Turkish Foreign Policy have been affected by the Kurdish question. In this context, as title makes sense of importance of this study is to explore and analyse the Kurdish policy of the AKP government and its impacts on Turkish Foreign Policy in last decade. In this way, this study will deal with both the Kurdish policy of the AKP government and historical development process of the Kurdish movement in the Middle East. Further to this, it discusses the drastic changes of the Turkish Foreign Policy in the Middle East focusing on the Kurdish political movement and provides coverage of the contemporary foreign policy strategies and debates on the Kurdish issue which has emerged as a result of the popular uprisings' process.
The book begins with a historical review of literature on intelligence. This is followed by a short account of the education system and intelligence testing in Libya and by a description of the Progressive Matrices tests. Given next is an account of the standardisation of Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices in Libya and the relationship of the test scores and students’ academic achievements. The results of the study are compared to those found in other studies in both developed and developing countries. These are followed by a meta-analysis of results of studies of the Standard Progressive Matrices. The book concludes with an account and discussion of intelligence testing with the Standard Progressive Matrices, IQ distributions and gender differences in Libya and other economically developing countries
This book is regarded as the first broadest comparative study to date on modern contract and sales law in the Middle Eastern and Arab countries. In order to do this several sources have been referred to including the most recent scholarship published by different Middle Eastern and Arab authors within the Northern African, the Middle Eastern and Gulf regions. The book also includes a large number of court decisions in the Middle Eastern and Arab countries. The work exhibits the methodology and solutions developed by the Middle Eastern and Arab laws, including those of Islamic law (Shari'a), in the context of a comparative practical approach in order to respond to particular situations relating to the sales contract. This book endeavors to play a major role in legal scholarship in the area of contract and sales law in the Middle Eastern and Arab countries. The method used should be fruitful for any legal researcher and practitioner seeking a clear-cut and direct legal solution to any of the issues covered within the scope of this work.
This thesis uses the concept of middle power to analyse foreign policy doctrine and practicies of Australia under the Coalition government led by John Howard from 1996-2007. A middle power in this thesis means a state which meets three main criteria when declaring foreign policy doctrine and conducting foreign policy, namely: (1) adhering to multilateral frameworks and international organisations; (2) being largely independent from great powers' influence and being able to criticise and oppose great powers on some occasions in order to maintain the orderliness of international relations; and (3) being a good international citizen in the sense that, apart from its own interests, it must also be aware of the interests of others such as protecting the environment and using its power to protect the weak against the strong. When applying these three criteria to analyse foreign policy doctrine and practices under the Howard government, some aspects and some practices corresponded with the criteria of a middle power while others did not at all. Therefore, this thesis concludes that Australia under the Howard government was not a constant middle power.
Regulating Sweden – A Comparative Study of Occupational Safety & Health Policy
The study of foreign languages is important in a globalized world. The study of foreign languages in Albania depends on the political, economic and diplomatic context of the country. When Albania was a communist country, Russian was the most spoken language in the country because the Soviet Union was the dominant country in the Eastern European communist bloc. After the fall of communism, Russian lost its influence and was replaced by English. The linguistic policy of the Albanian Government is influenced by the European Linguistic policy, as a kind of supranational policy. But, the study of languages depends also on personal reasons like to study, work and live abroad, travel and many other subjective reasons. Anyway, the study of foreign languages is interesting because it connects us to other cultures and people.
Presenting the first comprehensive account of foreign policy objectives as a growing part of European constitutional law, this book examines the nature, functions, and potential of these objectives by approaching EU external relations law through both comparative constitutional analysis and international relations theory.
This selection of essays by the leading comparative lawyer,Basil Markesinis, provides a compilation of his most stimulating and authoritative work. It brings together for the first time writings which capture the essence of his pioneering approach to comparative law. The essays are of particular interest to those engaged in the study of the law of obligations; scholars will find here a discussion of broad intellectual and theoretical issues pertaining to this field. These issues are highlighted in the introductory chapter. This work is a tour de force of comparative law scholarship and should be read and kept close at hand by every comparatist.
This book include comparative studies about foreign firms' economic performance and location choices in China. Tables and Figures are easy to read and econometric regression models provide deeper analysis. If you want to understand China economic development progress and how foreign firms' performance are there, this book is undoubtedly a good reference for you. In the book, I was putting great importance on industrial agglomeation. I use data to explain how agglomeation developed in China. This is also a vivid economic research of regional study. It will bring you to understand FDI's importance for local economic development.
To what extent has been continuity and change in the revolutionary Iran foreign policy since 1979? This question is examining the Iranian foreign policy over the last twenty-seven-year by using two major theories in the fields of International relations and comparative foreign policy explanations. While the systemic theory, represented by neorealism theory in this research, argues that international system drives states foreign policies, domestic and statist explanations argue that domestic political factors play major role in driving and shaping states foreign behaviors. My research will use these different approaches to study the Islamic Republic foreign policy under different leaderships – Khomeini, Rafsanjani, Khatami, and Ahmadinejad – since its establishment in February 1979. Since this research is using different international variables – the Iran-Iraq War (1980 – 1988), oil prices, and the existences of the United States armed forces in the Middle East, as well as different domestic and Statist political variables – leaders’ orientations, decision structure, domestic political oppositions, and interest groups.
The main objectives of "A Comparative Study of Working Capital Management" is to examine the management of working capital and its impact on overall financial position of two banks namely Standard Chartered Bank Nepal Limited and Himalayan Bank Limited. It describes the position of current assets and current liabilities, composition of working capital, assets utilization and profitability position of the both. It also presents a brief conceptual framework about working capital management.It should prove usefulness to students, researchers, shareholders, policy makers and all those who are interested to gain knowledge about working capital management.