Over the last few years, avian influenza outbreaks have increased exponentially, and the workers of live bird markets (LBMs) are very importantly occupationally exposed population that could potentially play a vital role in the transmission of avian influenza. With this detonation also come a rise in need for understanding the poultry movement and the extent in which this movement is linked periurban with urban areas and the inhabitants within each of these areas. The interaction of humans with poultry provides considerable risk of revelation to virus. Most of the LBMs workers had knowledge about avian influenza and they gathered knowledge through the mass media, and agreed that avian influenza is a serious but preventable disease. Knowledge about mode of transmission, source of infection and preventive practices varied to a great extent. Consequently, a concerted effort is required to enhance knowledge and change the behavior among those most at risk in low-income countries and the precautions necessary to avoid spreading the virus among poultry and humans.
It is worthy to consider the live bird markets are important for the existence of avian reservoir bacteria that are enteric human pathogens. With this ignition, need arises to determine the occurrence of zoonotic bacteria from the workers of live bird markets. The interaction of humans with poultry provides a considerable risk of revelation to bacteria. Although some of these markets have been as potential sources of zoonotic bacterial disease and molecular detection positivity among live bird market workers in Bangladesh raises anew the considerable risks associated with these practices. Accordingly, the results obtained in this study suggest that the appropriate precautions should be taken during and subsequent to the handling of live birds to minimize the risk of zoonotic diseases.
Poultry farming on commercial and scientific line was started practically during eighties in Bangladesh. Gainful impacts in terms of employment generation and poverty alleviation are observed in this sector but in recent past it was seriously affected by the rumour of bird flu. Bird flu or Avian Influenza is a viral disease capable of causing extremely high mortality amongst infected poultry. The virus had spread at an incredible rate over the course of the months of January and February 2004 hitting about ten countries in South-East Asia and in USA. Wide coverage of the news of bird flu in the world by different TV channels and newspapers created a suspicion of spreading bird flu in Bangladesh at that time. The death of few thousand commercial poultry birds made this suspicion more strong but the death was caused for wrong vaccination. Though it was proved by the reports of WHO and other organizations that Bangladesh was free from bird flu, the broiler farm owners had to bear huge financial losses due to rumour. This study is an attempt to find out the impact of bird flu rumour on production, marketing and consumption of broiler enterprise in Bangladesh.
This work establishes the existence of a sophisticated and smoothly functioning system of financial markets in the mercantile states of northwestern Europe throughout the 1700s. Based on computer analysis of thousands of price quotes from the financial press of the eighteenth century, the results should force both historians and economists to reevaluate their understanding of the evolution of financial markets and their importance for the economic developments of that era.
This is an advanced theoretical treatment of pricediscrimination in imperfectly competitive markets. Weaddress issues such as the viability of pricediscrimination when markets are oligopolistic ratherthan monopolistic. In particular, it seeks todetermine what effects the introduction ofcompetition to a monopoly market will have on afirm''s ability to price discriminate. Also examinedis price discrimination in the presence of collusionamong consumers, as well as the connection between amonopolist''s linear pricing and resale among consumers.
It has long been held that conditions in the Roman economy resembled those found in early modern Europe. In a groundbreaking new study, Peter Bang interrogates this claim and argues that Roman trade and markets could more accurately be compared to those of the Mughal Empire in India.
An increase in drug safety concerns in recent years with some high profile drug withdrawals have led to raising the block by various stakeholders, more importantly by the regulatory authorities. The number of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported, have also resulted in an increase in the volume of data handled. To understand pharmacovigilance a high level of capability is required to rapidly detect drug risks as well as to defend the product against an inappropriate removal. Positive pharmacovigilance throughout the product life cycle is the way forward and the future direction for drug safety.It is a challenge to arrange and regiment the act of signal detection and risk management in the context of clinical trials and post- marketing pharmacovigilance. With more clinical trials and clinical research activity being conducted in Bangladesh, there is an immense need to understand and implement pharmacovigilance.This book describes and discusses the various strategies and proposals to build, maintain and implement a robust pharmacovigilance system for various stakeholders and eventually make it happen in Bangladesh.
Mizbha Uddin Mohammad Foysal, Born in first January 1991. He is a permanent citizen in District Chittagong, Bangladesh. After successful completion of his S.S.C. (2006) and H.S.C. (2009) exams he enrolled as a Bachelor student at Southern University Bangladesh (Chittagong-4000)in Department of Pharmacy(2010)under faculty of Science and Engineering. Now he is a master's student in the same department.
In considering the case of the Italian vehicle manufacturer, this book tries to answer the following question: What are the key business communication issues facing a multinational aiming to consolidate its position in an intensely competitive global environment? The analysis is carried out within the discipline of business communication, a multidisciplinary area encompassing discourse analysis, applied linguistics, legal, economic and marketing discourse, terminology and translation studies, cross-cultural studies, labour law, and industrial relations.
Freshwater Hydrocharitaceae of Bangladesh is represented by 6 genera namely, Hydrilla, Blyxa, Nechamandra, Vallisneria, Ottelia and Hydrocharis (Khan and Halim 1987). Under these genera 9 species have been reported so far. Another member of the Hydrocharitaceae Egeria densa Planchon commonly known as Brazilian elodea is native to the coast of southeastern Brazil through Argentina, was also cultivated as an aquarium plant in the tropical fish business. In Bangladesh Egeria densa did not found till 2009. The plant material of Egeria densa was collected in a remote natural lake of Bangladesh namely Bogakine situated in the hilly Bandarban district in 2010. After collection the plant was transferred in the Botanical Garden, Department of Botany, University of Dhaka for culturing. Egeria densa showed an unique life cycle in the study period. The studied species showed significant relationship with climatic factors in respect to their growth and regeneration. Among nutrients phosphorus can be important. Scopes still exist to carry out similar meso-scale growth studies and limnological investigation on threatened aquatic macrophytes of Bangladesh.
Markets in Bangladesh are changing fast than ever before. New markets are emerging, trading blocks are extending and communications channels about products and selling them are changing at a revolutionary pace. In the perspective of this current study, the market governance have been consciously designed to change or moderate behavior of consumers, businesses, organizations in order to influence how markets work and their sustainable development impacts. Simultaneously, the marketing mix often becomes crucial when determining a product or brand’s unique selling point via the four Ps: price, product, promotion, and place. Hence, the current study explores the holistic roles of the customary 4Ps of Marketing Mix in the development of Market Governance of Bangladesh in the light of few selected cases.
The book is about one of the emerging real estate markets in the world, Bangladesh. With little bit surprise the market grows with huge pace; courtesy to the varied socio economic factors like land scarcity, complex buying process, complex decision making process, income disparity etc. Though this change brings positive effects to the Bangladesh society and economy, there are some issues to be concerned also.
Sustainable forest development in Bangladesh explores the indigenous knowledge of sustainable development practices. Bangladeshi indigenous people live in the hill and forest areas. This book provides the traditional knowledge of Mandi indigenous people of Madhupur Sal forest. It presents various ecological and cultural practices such as uses of plants and animals, traditional medicines, hunting and fishing behaviour, wild foods etc. Sustainable forest development in Bangladesh is essential reading for knowing the third worlds development.
Bangladesh has been able to reduce under five-child mortality (U5CM) rate at 88 per thousand live births as reported in BDHS 2004. However, Bangladesh is committed to reduce U5CM to 44 per thousand live births in 2015 (one-third of U5CM of 133 per thousand live births of 1990, midyear 1991) to meet Millennium Development Goal 4 for child survival(MDG 4). The objective of this study is to determine risk factors and socioeconomic inequalities in U5CM in Bangladesh. This study analyzed data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys done during the period of 1999-2003 (published in 2004) to generate estimates of risk factors and socioeconomic inequalities of mortality in children younger than 5 years.
Population projection for many developing countries like Bangladesh could be quite a challenging task. The objective of this paper is to compare between different types of population models and to find out the most suitable population models for long term population projection. We represented some population models such as Malthusian model, Logistic model, Gompertz model and Schaefer model to investigate their solution and plot their graphs. We predicted the human population of Bangladesh during 1980 to 2080 by applying both Malthusian and Logistic models using the actual population data of 1980 to 2013 from World Bank. The study reveals that short time population prediction is more accurate in Malthusian model. But in long term prediction, population growth is more unrealistic. But Logistic model is more realistic in long term prediction as compared to Malthusian model. Our work touched a little part of it.The realistic prediction of human population in future is very essential. We believe that extensive and continuous involvement in population dynamics research may result in to answer many questions and also may bring tremendous achievements for the next generation.