Low cost adsorbent are prepared from activated sugarcane bagasse (ASB), activated waste paper (AWP), and activated Delonix regia Fruit Pod (ADRF)which act as a useful adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous phase. The study was carried out using batch experiments with synthetic wastewater having a methylene blue concentration. The effects of contact time were investigated and compared for all the three adsorbents. The adsorption process reached equilibrium within 120min of contact time almost for all adsorbent. Comparative study of contact time indicates that sugarcane bagasse adsorbed at faster rate and adsorbed the maximum. The Freundlich, Langmuir, models were used for mathematical description of the adsorption equilibrium, and it was found that the experimental data fitted very well to the Langmuir isotherm for all the three adsorbent. Batch adsorption studies, based on the assumption of a pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, showed that the kinetic data followed closely a pseudo-second-order rather than a pseudo-first-order mechanism.
Synthesis, characterization and intercalation of Zeolite A from Nigerian Ahoko kaolin for adsorption studies of Methylene blue (MB)were studied. The Zeolite A was synthesized from Nigerian Ahoko kaolin (NAK) using hydrothermal technique and was intercalated by hexamethyltetraamine (HMTA). The synthesized zeolite A (SZA) and intercalated zeolite A (IZA) were characterized using X- Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Braunauer Emmet Teller (BET) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analyses.The XRD reveal zeolite A peaks including several peaks depicting presence of minerals like quartz, mica, calcium and iron.The surface area of SZA and IZA were found to be 21.11m2/g and 21.47m2/g, respectively based on BET analysis. The effects of initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH and temperature with contact time were studied for SZA and IZA to examine their performance as an adsorbent. The adsorption rates increased with increase pH,temperature, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage for both SZA & IZA. The intercalation also positively increases the adsorption capacity of the parent material.
This book provides the usefulness of date palm as adsorbent in the removal of unwanted pollutants such as dyes, heavy metals, organic compounds and pesticides. Many studies on adsorption properties of various low cost adsorbent such as agricultural waste and activated carbon based on agricultural wastes have been reported in recent years. Studies have shown that date palm is the most promising adsorbents for removing pollutants from waste water.
Removal of organic and inorganic pollutants from wastewater by adsorption on activated carbon and synthetic resins has been widely studied. Though activated carbon is an ideal adsorbent for organic matter due to its organophillic character, high cost of preparation and regeneration is a limiting factor for their large-scale use in wastewater treatment. This has prompted the use of many novel materials as adsorbents. The present work was aimed at developing a low cost adsorbent from the mature leaves of the Neem (Azadirachta indica)tree. The objectives were to convert dry, mature Neem leaves into a powder (Neem Leaf Powder, NLP), characterize the adsorbent (NLP) by spectroscopic and other methods, test the effectiveness of NLP as an adsorbent for removal of micro-pollutants such as dyes (methylene blue, Congo red, brilliant green) and metal ions (Cd(II), Cr(VI) and Pb(II)) from an aqueous medium, and determine the influence of various factors such as concentration, pH, temperature, and agitation time, etc., on adsorption. Both batch and column adsorption processes were applied with significant achievements.
In this present study, adsorption of Cr (VI) ions on tamarind tree bark adsorbent has been studied through using batch adsorption techniques. The main objectives of this study are to 1) investigate the chromium adsorption from aqueous solution by tamarind tree bark, 2) study the influence of pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, particle size and initial chromium concentration on adsorption process and 3) determine appropriate adsorption isotherm and kinetics parameters of Cr (VI) adsorption on tamarind tree bark. In this present study the parameter like pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial chromium concentration were determined with the help of synthetic chromium sample. Also with the help of electroplating industrial wastewater sample, the parameters adsorbent dose, contact time and particle size were determined.The results of this study show that higher Cr (VI) adsorption was observed at lower pH, and maximum Cr (VI) removal 97% obtained at pH value 1.0 with 30 minutes contact time, adsorbent dose 3.75g/l of particle size 150µ and 5mg/l initial Cr (VI) concentration.
Water is a source of energy and life, although millions of people worldwide are suffering with the shortage of clean drinking and fresh water. Rapid pace of population expansion, industrialization and unplanned urbanization have largely contributed to the severe water pollution and surrounding soils. Discharge of toxic industrial wastes and untreated sanitary, dumping of industrial effluent, and runoff from agricultural fields can be the main sources of freshwater pollution. Apart from that, many solid wastes have been generated from burning agriculture solid waste used to generate electricity. Especially solid waste from rice mill, oil palm mill and power plant, these ashes are abundantly available in Malaysia. within the close to future, additional increase within the quantity of those waste materials is anticipated to occur, particularly in Malaysia, where rising economies are expected to provide the biggest increase in energy consumption. Therefore, makes an attempt are created to utilize waste materials as various adsorbents, particularly waste-derived siliceous materials.
Present study deals with the removal of Congo red through adsorption from its aqueous solution on Raphanus sativus peel. The basic purpose of this study is to evaluate low cost adsorbent for dye removal. Being carcinogen Congo red is hazardous and toxic. Batch wise removal were executed in order to estimate the effects of a various experimental parameters like Mesh size, adsorbent dose, contact time, temperature, agitation speed and pH. Adsorbent was treated with 0.1M HCl and 0.1M NaOH. Similar experimental parameters were performed for these acid and base treated adsorbents. Comparative study revealed that acid treated is the adsorbent. However, pH factor showed maximum percentage of adsorption in U.T.B. Langmuir and Freundlich Isothermal model were used to explain the equilibrium for these adsorption processes. Study revealed that adsorption followed Langmuir model for A.T.B and B.T.B whereas freundlich model for U.T.B. The adsorption capacity was 0.06, 0.24 and 0.12 mg/g for untreated, acid and base treated respectively. The maximum capacity observed for A.T.B in Langmuir isotherm. So, acid treated Raphanus Sativus peel are potential adsorbents for Congo red removal.
The book well describes the solution of the problem of current most dangerous cause of environmental pollution i.e. water pollution caused by the exponentially growing textile dye effluents globally. This book has the information of all methods available for the removal of dye and also which are the reliable and economic methods. The contents of the book are mainly targeted on the students, research scholars who works more on environmental pollution abatement. This book we be useful as a guide to those who are mainly conducting research on the water pollution control. The book will be very useful as the reference to the people who have the keen interest in conducting the research in the area of adsorption as it has all the theoretical information along with the experimentally proven results.
Water pollution is a serious threat to mankind in the present scenario and, hence, many techniques are in use for water treatment. Out of them the adsorption is a commonly used method as it is simple, fast, and universal in nature. Typically, activated carbon is used as a perfect adsorbent for wastewater treatment but it is overpriced and requires regeneration. The regenerated carbon exhibits lower adsorption capacity with further management problem of the effluent obtained from its regeneration. These facts have grown interest in the search for solid waste based low cost alternatives of activated carbon that can be used for water pollutant removal. This book tells how (i) to develop low cost adsorbents from waste materials (ii) to remove toxic pollutants by using developed low cost adsorbents (iii) to optimize adsorption parameters for the maximum removal of pollutants by using developed low cost adsorbent through batch process (iv) to transfer batch adsorption conditions to the column studies; to evaluate the feasibility of the developed adsorption system in real samples (v) to ascertain adsorption mechanism for applying the developed adsorption system effectively & practically.
Utilization of biological waste in treatment of industrial effluents is an emerging field of research. In present context of waste management, bio-adsorbent based techniques are well-known as an eco-friendly approach, for cleaning up various industrial effluents. The efficiency of water hyacinth, as low cost bio-adsorbent has been investigated for removal of lead ions from aqueous solution. Equilibrium behavior of this adsorbent was investigated by performing batch adsorption experiments to study the effect of the major parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of metal ion and adsorbent dose, etc. Response surface methodology was applied to predict the optimal condition of lead ion removal. The correlation of the operating variables and the response based on face centered central composite design are fitted to quadratic polynomial equation. The quadratic term of initial metal ion concentration showed significant influence on the extent of removal. This work showed the potential of the water hyacinth as bio-adsorbent for removal of lead ions from paint industry effluent.
Phosphorus (P) is growth limiting nutrient and deficient in most soils of the world. Research was conducted on five soil series of Pakistan differing in soil properties. Phosphorus adsorption isotherms were developed and fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich equations to describe P adsorption process. The study suggests that the oxides of iron and aluminum are the main adsorbent at low P concentration, normally applied in agricultural soils and soil CaCO3 play role at high P level. This book is recommended for soil science community working on P chemistry.
The dust of woody plants Malus domestica and Prunus persica was activated by chemicals means. The surface was characterized by BET surface area, FTIR, Scanning electron micrograph, Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. Adsorption of some basic dyes on each sample was studied by kinetics and batch adsorption techniques at different adsorption temperatures. The residual concentration of the dye was determined by using UV–vis spectrophotometric technique. The removal of dyes from wastewater was studied with respect to initial dye concentrations, equilibration time and different dye concentration for batch studies. Adsorption kinetics was analyzed by using intraparticle diffusion, Elovich and Bangham models. For batch study Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Harkins-Jura linear equations were used for analyzing the data and were found fit to the adsorption data.
This book deals with the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption of dyes specially methylene blue (MB) on different low-cost adsorbents. The comparison of enthalpy change (?H°) and entropy change (?S°) clearly divides the adsorbents into two groups, namely, inert or inorganic and natural or lignocellulosic adsorbents. The former group follows the van’t Hoff equation and no compensation effect is required in the computation of enthalpy and entropy changes. On the other hand the second group requires the consideration of compensation effect which is generally overlooked by almost all of the authors. Although the calorimetry is the best solution to get the reliable values of thermodynamic parameters in almost all systems, a quick estimate is generally obtained from the equilibrium constant especially in adsorption studies. It might be acceptable in inorganic adsorbents due to low compensation temperature but it would be more erroneous in lignocellulosic adsorbents hence their contribution need be accounted for to get more reliable results.
Removal of heavy metal ions from water and wastewater has became more important due rapid industrialization. However among all the conventional methods application of adsorption for heavy metal removal gained more importance. However application of activated carbon as adsorbent became more popular, however due to cost effectiveness its application been limited. Low-cost adsorbents from agricultural bio waste were observed as novel materials for metal removal. This book includes application of agro-biomass as adsorbent for metal removal. The book consists of brief introduction of water pollution and methods for removal of metal ions and adsorption mechanism. Also several empirical models have been adopted to analyze the equilibrium data. Kinetics and isotherm have been studied. This book is very useful for scientists, engineers and researcher who are working in the areas of adsorption and biosorption.
Mitigation of dyes from effluents of industries using dyes is a big problem as it affects not only BOD, COD but also decreases photosynthesis in aquatic plants as it obstucts penetration of sun light into the water.Till now no single technology and adsobent is known to meet desired results. In this study attempts have been made to prepare Steam Activated Pigmented rice Husk Carbon fron easily available, cheap agriculural waste. This book sheds light on optimization of parameters viz initial concentration of dye, adsorbent dose, temperature along with intra particle diffusion, thermodynamic study and kinetic study of adsorption. This book will be a significant tool for researchers and professionals who want to develope cost effective adsorbent to mitigate dyes, toxic compounds and heavy metals from the effluents also to optimize parameters.