Soon Nigeria will pass controversial oil and gas legislation into law, the new bill has been perceived differently by different stakeholders worldwide. Subsequently, this research studied the proposed Petroleum Industry Bill (PIB) and compared its proposed contentious PSC’s fiscal terms with that of Indonesia, to evaluate its competitiveness and impact on the final government/contractor take and to come up with a proven idea and insight about the PSC’s terms in PIB. Empirical data was used in acquiring information on the two countries’ fiscal regimes. Similarly, a sample of oil exploration and production project was assumed using similar data for the two countries, where the proposed fiscal terms in Nigeria were applied to identify its impact on the final government and contractor take at the end of the project. On the other hand, Explanatory and descriptive approach was applied in analysing and comparing the PSC’s fiscal regimes and how it affect the final government/contractor take in the two countries. The comparison and analysis undertaken has exposed the fair nature of the new PSC proposal in Nigerian PIB and identified areas of revisiting in the bill
The book examined the impact of petroleum sector and Economic growth in an emerging economy like Nigeria.The study became necessary due to the under development experienced in spite of the high revenue generated from the sales of crude oil at the international market in the study area. Generally, it is observed that petroleum sector had an impact on economic growth in Nigeria. The study concluded by identifying government expenditure as a driving force to economic growth in Nigeria. In addition, primary product export and Gross capital formation (investment) were identified as key variables that spur economic growth in Nigeria.
It has been learnt that there is no specific legislation in many countries in the respect of towage contract. The Comparative Study on Towage Contracts from the Myanmar Perspective aims to legislate on the subject of towage contracts. Therefore, It has been explained the general concept of towage that reflected historic development of towage and the meaning the towage. The towage services are varied in contractual terms depending on the towage operation in harbor or in ocean and relation with salvage and towage. In this respect, they have their own characteristic and legal the obligation of tug and tow. It also mentioned the circumstances for abandonment of towage. And the cases held for the collision when the tug and tow were involved. This study contains the similarities of common law and civil law. Therefore, it will be helpful if the similarities and differences between civil law and common law are clearly understood.
Nowadays, the decline of the age of oil expecting in 2050 push many oil-producing countries to want to change their oil laws, to nationalize or expropriate foreign oil companies operating in their territories, to renegotiate their former petroleum contracts in order to better adapt them to the current circumstances and implement policies for strengthening the control of national and foreign petroleum activities. The rising of large (national or) foreign direct investments in search of new oilfield around the world reflects the panic of the decline of oil and its legal consequences. This situation will help us to analyze and understand legal issues that arise in the State contracts especially petroleum contracts signed between, on the one hand the host state of investment, subject of international law and owner of petroleum resources contained into its territory, and on the other hand, the foreign investors or a private foreign oil company, which is a non-state actor of international law. Keywords: State contract, Petroleum contracts, stabilization clause
The quest to have a documented and empirical proof of the extent and level of commitment of Russia and Nigeria in playing their roles as regional powers was the motivating factor of emberking on this project. The author meticulously analysis the economic, political and social roles Russia has been playing in her region after the disintegration of the Soviet Union. This is juxtaposed with the similar roles Nigeria has been playing in her immediate neibouring countries in particular and in Africa as a whole. The work rates the efforts of the two countries high but cautions that a lot more is still needed to sustain peaceful regions. Perhaps, this is the only known attempt to analytically project the two countries comparatively in any form of studies.
Biodiesel and other biofuels production is an important option required in Nigeria to mitigate the ongoing increased in primary energy need, greenhouse gases emissions, over dependence on oil and gas economy, high levels of urban and rural poverty and to ensure sustainable economy for rural development. This research compares the economic viability of biodiesel production from two Northern Nigerian feedstocks (groundnut and cotton seed oils) based on product quality, environmental and financial economics. Biodiesel production and comparative product quality studies were carried out experimentally while environmental and financial economics were examined based on collected data and relevant experimental outcomes. Both oils produced optimal yields (83.05% and 74.5%) of high quality biodiesel with properties of international standard, and with groundnut oil being the best. This product can be blended with different percentages of petroleum diesel and used directly in diesel engines without further modification to give optimal performance. The results of Comparative Life Cycle Assessment showed that long term biodiesel production from groundnut oil will have higher relative impacts.
This work details the history of oil and gas related conflict in Nigeria that started since oil was first discovered in Olobiri, in the Niger Delta region in 1956. It discusses how income from oil and gas resources marginalized the productive sector of the Nigerian economy leading to poverty and conflict. Furthermore, it highlights some of the conflict transformation initiatives of the Government of Nigeria and their inability to deliver on their set goals. Finally, this book made some recommendations for reflection that have implication for policy formulation and implementation.
This scholarly work is no doubt a very useful material to students and all persons desirous to acquire sound knowledge and understanding of the topical issues of disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration ----OSEMENE, Goodluck James Registrar, Temple Gate Polytechnic, Aba. DDR programmes are significant in actualisation of sustainable peace in every post-conflict society. Apart from context dynamics of DDR programmes, this book offers cross learning. The need for peace and stability occasioned the DDR programmes in Niger Delta and Sierra Leone. The socio-political instability that scarred Sierra Leone for a decade and Niger Delta which intensified in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic necessitated governments’ intervention in both countries. This book examined the disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration modelling in Nigeria and Sierra Leone which were designed to contain armed conflicts and remove arms from the wrong hands. Through this comparative study, students, scholars and researchers will be acquainted with the similarities, differences, significance and the outcomes of the DDR programmes in Nigeria and Sierra Leone, being ECOWAS member states --- James Okolie-Osemene.
Diabetes mellitus has become a major cause of illness and disability across the world. The number of people with diabetes is increasing due to population growth, aging, urbanization, and increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. Quantifying the prevalence of diabetes and the number of people affected by diabetes now and in the future is important to allow rational planning and allocation of resources. Epidemiological data for India indicates that people affected by diabetes in India presently are about 31,196,000 and projections for 2030 in India are about 79,441,000 as reported in the World Health Organization [WHO] Global Burden of Disease Study. The present work discusses the importance of the antidiabetic therapies in altering the Quality of Life and cognitive parameters in diabetic conditions. The outcome of the study will measure the efficacy of antidiabetic drug on quality of life and cognitive function of the diabetic patients. The comparative efficacy of the antidiabetic drugs used in the treatment of diabetic patients in relation to Sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics on their Quality of Life and cognitive paradigms will also be revealed.
The search for the strategies to develop West African economy finds undermined natural resource endowment syndrome. Oil palm is among the long neglected natural resources in Nigeria and Benin. The countries are endowed with rich material and human resources paramount in developing oil palm industry. This work shows the profitability of oil palm processing and the actual production situations. It revealed factors constraining the development of the industry and documents the production advantages available for processors. The viability and underlying potentials of the industry to the development of the economies were unveiled through estimated technical efficiency, profitability and labor-use. Synergies among stakeholders towards intensifying investments on this lucrative industry and policies to enhance bulky supply of FFB; checkmate the role of middle men in the FFB supply chain and; encourage increasing participation of women for enhanced technical efficiency are advocated. Such policies should gear towards provision of cheaper energy consuming mechanical devices for sterilization of palm nuts and decantation of crude palm oil.
The increasing demand for oil presents oil producing states with the challenge of increasing output in the light of paucity of the enormous capital needed for such productive enterprise. The scenario impels the urgency of establishing an investment regime which guarantees investors fair returns on investments. This book is an attempt at a comprehensive and comparative analysis of the plethora of laws and policies which govern investment in petroleum development in Nigeria. It examines the impediments to attracting and sustaining petroleum investment, and the mechanisms for resolving petroleum investment disputes. Furthermore, it discusses the implications of the concepts of Corporate Social Responsibility, Sustainable Development and Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative for petroleum investments. This book will serve as a useful companion to policy makers and petroleum industry operators. Also, law students, academics, researchers and lawyers will find it an invaluable resource material.
The book examined the impact investment on economic growth in Nigeria.The book also assessed to failure or success of saving and investment gap in Nigeria.The study used annual data spanning from 1976 to 2006 on domestic investment proxy by capital formation and domestic saving in an effort to find out their impact on economic.It concluded the savings and investment engenders economic growth in Nigeria
Criminality among females which has been on the increase has been fostered and encouraged by cultural prejudice and domestic responsibilities which disadvantaged them from getting employed in stable and well paid jobs. Women however play a very crucial role of socialization in the overall national development process; hence their involvement in criminal acts will have negative impacts on the nation’s economic development. This prompted an examination of pattern of female criminality in Osun, Kwara and Niger states of Nigeria. The study revealed a high variability in the degree, pattern and trends of female criminality in the study area. For instance economic crime was prominent in Niger state. Violent crimes were prevalent in Osun state. Female criminality in Kwara state was however minimal. There is therefore a need to improve the socio-cultural status of female in the study area and in Nigeria as whole. Acquisition of higher educational qualifications, acquire in relevant vocation and entrepreneurial skills relevant to their social and cultural practices should be encouraged.
Since the return of Nigeria to Democratically elected government on May 29, 1999 the Country has been witnessing an unprecedented rate of crime and criminal related activities like Odua People’s Congress (OPC) in the South West, Bakassi Boys in the East, vandalization of oil pipelines and kidnapping of oil company workers in the South-South by Movement for Emancipation of Niger Delta (MEND), while in the North, the problem of sectarian crisis and implementation of Sharia law led to the emergence of Islamic Fundamentalist (Boko Haram). These ethnic militias and chauvinistic organization create instabilities which police cannot handle. The foregoing provide an impetus for one to assess the agencies of social control especially the police who are charged with the constitutional role of crime control in Nigeria in order to understand the problem that militate against their performance in contemporary societies and fine solution to the problems. The book will be of benefit to Sociologist, Criminologist, Security Agencies, and those who desire for peace the World over.
The main purpose of the study is to evaluate some quality control parameters to compare the quality, safety, and efficacy of five brands of ofloxacin tablets available in the Indian market. The physicochemical parameters and assay of the five brands of ofloxacin tablets were assessed through the evaluation of uniformity of tablet weight, friability, hardness, disintegration, and assay of active ingredients according to established methods. Weight variation of the tablets proved statistically that all of the tablets were in accordance to the required limits that is not more then ±5% deviations. Dissolution test was carried out; none had potency less than 85% within 60minutes the required specification, not less than Q+5%. Pharmaceutical assay was carried out none had potency less than the required specification (90.00% - 100.00%). The dissolution rate and disintegration time were determined in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) without enzymes. All brands complied with the official specification for uniformity of weight, friability, and disintegration and dissolution in both Simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid.