Doing two tasks together is a day today activity and is problematic in case of elderly with parkinsonism due to inefficient allocation of attention during performing tasks of daily routine therefore improvement of this via dual task training in different enviornmental context may prove beneficial and is economical in reference to time and money and reduces risk of falls during routine walking, obstacle crossing and many other.
Upper limb dysfunction in stroke patients has an impact on the performance of activity of daily living (ADLS). The ultimate goal for many stroke patients is to achieve maximum level of functional independence. Stroke rehabilitation is often described as a process of active (motor) learning that starts, preferably, within the first few days after the stroke. Some trials found that the favourable outcome in the ADL and independence is still significant at ten years post-stroke onset not only in the first six months depending on the type of rehabilitation.For this reason my work that Submitted for Fulfillment of the Requirements of Doctoral Degree in Physical Therapy for Neuromuscular Disorders and Its Surgery was established with the help of my supervisors Prof. Dr.; Moshera Hassan Darwish,Mohamed S. El Tamawy,Ann Ali Abd El Kader, Mye Ali Basheer to study the appropriate type of rehabilitation for the upper limb dysfunction in the chronic stroke patients that has an impact on brain plasticity in patients with stroke for more than one year.
There are several measures in the rehabilitation of Parkinson's patients which bring them to the point of ambulation with mobility aids. I have made a study on this condition to further achieve independent walk in them. This book is to show the "efficiency of dual task training in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease" it shows improvement in step length and TUG Test. Chapter-1 deals with introduction about the disease. Chapter-2 deals with aims and hypothesis made on this study. Chapter-3 consists of the Review of Literature, sited the articles. Chapter-4 deals with protocol for the patients i.e, how they are trained. Chapter-5 shows the data analysis for the measurements of step length and TUG test. Finally bibliography gives information about the supporting references. This book may help several physiotherapy who deal with Parkinson's patients to practice dual task training. Before going through this book please note that everyone has to study well about Parkinson's disease.
The differential diagnosis of each form of parkinsonism at onset may be difficult for clinicians because the evolution of different features may vary widely and clinical and instrumental markers predictive for a specific syndrome are still lacking. Parkinsonisms may exhibit a variety of non-motor symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, that may be present since the early stage of disease. Objective of this prospective single centre observational study is to describe the possible diagnostic value of sleep disturbances in patients with recent-onset parkinsonism. This study suggests that REM sleep motor control is more frequently impaired at disease onset in patients with atypical parkinsonism than in patients with Parkinson disease. The evaluation of sleep disorders, with an in-depth clinical interview followed by video-polysomnography, may be a useful tool in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism at onset.
Earlier spasticity was thought to be the primary contributor to the motor dysfunction noted in Cerebral Palsy, but now the negative signs such as muscle weakness are considered more harmful for obtaining normal motor function.Hence while treating such children focus should be on improving the muscle strength and along with strength training, functional activities and active participation of child should be emphasized to tackle the problem of functional carryover seen in neurophysiological therapeutic approaches which concentrate on normalization of quality of movement rather than on learning of a functional activity. Functional approach is based on an active view of motor learning where children learn by actively attempting to solve the problems inherent to a functional task, hence there is a good amount of functional carryover of that task.
The major contribution of this work is examining the changes in cerebrovascular changes in migraine patients and control group due to the effect of a mental activity and comparing the amount of changes in blood oxygenation with healthy subjects to show the neurovascular coupling disorder and have a better understanding of the physiological changes in the brain during mental work. An experimental protocol is designed; to generate a higher activity in the prefrontal cortex by using a cognitive task, which is composed of three difficulty levels; and to measure the activation differences between healthy and diseased (migraine) subjects. In this study, the hemodynamic response during mental arithmetic task was evaluated in both healthy subjects and migraine patients and these responses were compared among these two groups. Our specific hypothesis was that “The hemodynamic response increases with the increasing working memory load in all subjects and this increase would be somewhat impaired in migraine patients according to the neurovascular coupling disorder hypothesis of migraine.”
Progressive muscular dystrophy refers to a group of hereditary myopathies characterized by progressive weakness, deterioration and regeneration of muscle fibers. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)is an X-linked recessive disorder that affects 1:3500 males and is caused by mutation in the dystrophin gene which is responsible for the maintenance of mechanical stability at the muscle cell membrane. Symptoms are seldom noted until the child is between 2-5 years old. The disease affects male only and is inherited in the female line. The major characteristics of the disease are muscle wasting, weakness and concurrent hypertrophy. Usually between the age of 8 to 12, severe contractures and muscle weakness are apparant and most children are unable to ambulate. There has been a debate for many years on whether muscular training is beneficial or harmful for patients with myopathic disorders. So we have tried to evaluate the effect of a well-designed isokinetic rehabilitation program on patients with DMD and clarify whether muscle strength training exercises cause improvement or further deterioration in those patients.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. What is less appreciated, perhaps, is that the great majority of CVD is associated with alterations to the arterial system. The effect of aging on CVD is illustrated simply, but powerfully, by the observation that the risk of CVD increases progressively with age. Given the current and projected increases in the number of older adults in North America, we face the possibility of a ‘new wave’ of CVD in the near future and an associated increase in healthcare burden. Determining how arteries change with respect to age and increased risk of CVD, the mechanisms by which these alterations are mediated, integrated with strategies for the prevention and treatment of arterial aging are, therefore, among our highest biomedical priorities.
Post-polio syndrome (PPS) refers to a clinical disorder affecting polio survivors with sequel years after the initial polio attack. These patients report new musculo-skeletal symptoms like fatigue, pain, new and unusual muscular deficits, on healthy as well as deficient muscles initially affected by the Poliovirus. For many patients with PPS, the recurrence of weakness, pain and fatigue is very distressing. Exercise is of paramount importance with regard to remaining independent during routine daily activities. Our study has shown improvements in fatigue and functional capacity following exercise and lifestyle modification; and lifestyle modification alone. Furthermore, increase in physical function was also observed following exercise with lifestyle modification. Administration of a regular exercise programme will be beneficial to patients with PPS. Hence, it is considered appropriate that patients with PPS with distinct impairment in functional capacity should be given an exercise programme along with lifestyle modification.
At this point in our understanding of ADHD, many academic constructs designed to aid in our conceptualization of etiology, process, and treatment have been developed. Unfortunately, behavioral interventions that ignore underlying cognitive processes, along with assumptions of a relationship between cognitive training and behavior have proceeded despite a dearth of empirical support. Without a more connected perspective on the relatively minor but chronic dysfunction reflected in the lives of individuals with ADHD, sufferers and care providers often do not know why they are subscribing to an intervention, decreasing their ownership and control of the presenting symptoms. As emergent psychological tools attempt to supplement or even substitute for stimulant medication, drawing the attention and finances of thousands interested in 'the cure,' this study attempts to make the connection between a tentatively-supported motor training program, behavior changes resulting from its application, and measured changes within the executive functions including response inhibition/impulse control and working memory performance following training of children with ADHD. For self- and other-helpers.
This study has shown that exercise significantly improves insulin sensitivity, decreases insulin resistance and improves adipokines which get stimulated due to accumulation of fat in adipocytes and more so because odd deposition of visceral fat than skeletal muscles. Exercise has shown the significant effect on certain clinical and anthropometric parameters i.e. weight, BMI, DBP in Diabetic patients and their First Degree Relatives(FDR's). Exercise has shown the significant effect on biochemical and metabolic parameters in terms of decrease in total serum insulin level, HOMA-IR, HOMA-%B, resistin level, total cholesterol, LDL and triglyceride level whereas increase in HDL level, HOMA-%S and leptin level in Diabetic group whereas in FDR’s of T2DM similar trends were noticed except decrease in leptin concentration and no change in total cholesterol level. With reference to prakriti(personality), kaphaja individuals have shown more improvement than pittaja prakriti(personality) individuals.
The purpose of the vocational education and training system is to develop sufficient people with the right skills to meet labour market demands. Thus, In the former centrally planned economies, there was an inherent close link between the systems of production and training. This close link made it possible for information on skill demand and supply to flow between the production system and the vocational education and training system. So, the book has indicated to forecast occupations and qualifications to identify future skill and training requirements.
Long-term athletic training is associated with cardiac changes that have been studied and are commonly described as athlete‘s heart. Volleyball is a moderate static and high dynamic sport, therefore involving a combination of resistance and endurance training. A commonly used method to investigate endurance capacity is the measurement of the maximal oxygen uptake of the muscles (Vo2 max). In this work we aimed To study the ability of diastolic function measured by echocardiography to reflect changes in endurance as assessed by Vo2 max in response to combined strengthening and endurance training in male volleyball players. Also we tried to differentiate between physiological cardiac hypertrophy occurring in athletes heart and pathological cardiac hypertrophy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).
Critically important is attention to prevention as preferential to treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Once overt nephropathy is present, progression cannot be avoided, only delayed. The earliest clinical indicator of renal damage is microalbuminuria, which should be screened for at regular intervals with sensitive tests. Several studies demonstrate the preventive effect of lowered blood glucose on the microvascular complications of diabetes, including nephropathy, and serve as the rationale for the emphasis on tight rather than casual glycemic control. Before and especially after the onset of early nephropathy, blood pressure control is critical in preventing or slowing the progression of renal damage. First-choice agents for treating microalbuminuria are the ACE inhibitors. Enalapril has an antiproteinuric effect independent of the effect on systemic blood pressure. Treatment with enalapril can reduce the rate of decline in kidney function in patients with diabetic nephropathy more than equally effective antihypertensive treatment with metoprolol. This points to a specific renal protective effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in diabetic nephropathy.
The study aimed at observing the hypoglycemic effect of one of the seasonally available highly nutritious leafy vegetable Colocasia esculenta / antiquorum on sixty NIDDM subjects selected from General Hospital, BHEL, Hyderabad,India.The patients were provided with packets of powder every day and were asked to consume along with meal for a period of 3 months. Significant variation in the fasting and post prandial blood glucose levels of Type II diabetic subjects were observed from that of pre-supplementation to the post supplementation periods. Colocasia when supplemented for 3 months to hyperglycemic patients were proved to be effective in reducing the fasting and post prandial blood glucose levels. Colocasia leaves were also proved to be hypocholesterolemic in reducing the higher lipid levels in hypercholesterolemic patients with little or no variation in the levels of other biochemical parameters like serum bilirubin, serum alkaline phosphotase,SGPT,serum uric acid and blood urea.