Diabetes mellitus (DM), a complicated metabolic disease, is one of the most harmful chronic disorders and causes of death in modern society. Renal functions are significantly altered in patients with DM. This book illustrates the effect of diabetes and the use of NSAIDs (Celecoxib and Aspirin) on the kidney and urinary bladder functions. Experimental diabetes was induced by injecting rats with streptozotocin. The results showed that Celecoxib or Aspirin could improve the nephropathy and bladder dysfunction induced by diabetes.
Critically important is attention to prevention as preferential to treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Once overt nephropathy is present, progression cannot be avoided, only delayed. The earliest clinical indicator of renal damage is microalbuminuria, which should be screened for at regular intervals with sensitive tests. Several studies demonstrate the preventive effect of lowered blood glucose on the microvascular complications of diabetes, including nephropathy, and serve as the rationale for the emphasis on tight rather than casual glycemic control. Before and especially after the onset of early nephropathy, blood pressure control is critical in preventing or slowing the progression of renal damage. First-choice agents for treating microalbuminuria are the ACE inhibitors. Enalapril has an antiproteinuric effect independent of the effect on systemic blood pressure. Treatment with enalapril can reduce the rate of decline in kidney function in patients with diabetic nephropathy more than equally effective antihypertensive treatment with metoprolol. This points to a specific renal protective effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in diabetic nephropathy.
The book entitled “Discovery of potential cyclooxygenase inhibitors using in silico docking studies”. Molecular docking studies are gaining importance in the new drug discovery process as a tool for high-throughput screening. This book deals with the evaluation of cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity of flavonoids using in silico docking studies. In this perspective, various flavonoids were analyzed for their anti-inflammatory activity. This book highlights the information about the structural models of the flavonoids in the cyclooxygenase binding sites, which may facilitate further development of more potent cyclooxygenase inhibitory agents. This book will be very useful to the undergraduate and postgraduate students of Pharmacists, Pharmacologists and Medicinal Chemists. Bioinformatics researchers will also be interested in this book. It is a handbook to be read, kept and referred to again and again.
The book is a collection of the most recent research literature in area of diabetic disease epidemiology, the mechanism of action and effect of resistance exercise on glycemic control. This book aims to determine the effect of supervised Progressive Resistance Training (PRT) on body composition, glycemic control, and cardio vascular disease (CVD) risk markers reduction to prevent and control Type 2 diabetic complications. Moreover, these attempts will have a significant impact on public health policy by providing PRT interventions as preventive factors. This Book also help professionals quickly identify the prons and cons of resistance exercise training as it is related to a wide range of medical condition for diabetic related disease.
The research presented in this book is comprised of two parts. Part A is related to research focused on protein glycation which is one of the major causes of diabetic complications. standard bio-assay was established to screen natural and synthetic compounds to discover new lead molecules with high potency and low toxic effects. More than 1000 compounds were investigated and detailed studies were performed. As a result several promising inhibitors of protein glycation belonging to different classes were identified and their cytotoxic effects were determined for their safer use. Part B of this book is related to receptor-based studies on type-2 diabetes mellitus. In this case we used glucagon and GLP-1 receptors.New mutants of these receptors were prepared by site-directed mutagenesis. These new mutants along with parent DNA were expressed in Human Embryonic Kidney cells which were tested for cAMP (secondary messenger) production. cAMP is responsible for the release of glucose from liver in case of glucagon receptor while in case of GLP-1 receptor cAMP is responsible for the release of insulin. Synthetic compounds were also tested against both receptors for cAMP production.
Diabetes mellitus constitutes a major cardiovascular risk factor with associated increased morbidity and mortality amongst affected women. Recently it has been shown, that although initially thought to be rare, cardiovascular disease and associated complications is on the rise among female Nigerians. However, studies on the effect of hypertension on the ECG parameters and evidence to support the related complications and particularly the cardiovascular complications of diabetes and/or hypertension among female diabetic subjects in our environment (Nigeria) are still relatively scanty and not well documented. The present study determined changes and complications in a cohort of susceptible ECG and the occurrence, prevalence, characterization of ECG patterns and abnormalities in female hypertensive diabetics as compared to normotensive diabetics. This book has been able to document the pattern of ECG changes in female hypertensive diabetic Nigerians compared to normotensive diabetics, indicating that both subject groups are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease complications which might be a reflection of environmental associated increases in body fat.
This Book involved the some newly discovered yoga which on highly effective on diabetic person. and to improve the health. these yoga's also important for teachers in the field of teaching.actually topic was the effect of yogic exercises on the diabetic teachers working in the secondary school of amravati district Maharashtra state in India. in this study various exercises as far as diabetics concerned.
Alzheimer's Disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is the leading cause of dementia and the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S. It is a complicated syndrome that appears to have a number of contributing factors. Three genes are implicated in increased susceptibility to Alzheimer's. They are the genes that code for the amyloid precursor protein, and the presenillins PS1 and PS2. Apoprotein E also increases the risk. Oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to the pathology associated with Alzheimer's Disease. A total of 17 epidemiologic studies have been performed in which non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) or corticosteroids were examined as a negative risk factor. The data from both case-control and population-based studies provide strong evidence that anti-inflammatory drugs may be beneficial to Alzheimer's patients.
Diabetes mellitus is probably the single most important metabolic disease and is widely recognized as one of the leading causes of death and disability in the different countries of the World. It affects every cell in the body and the essential biochemical processes that go on there. Even in normal individuals, significant weight gain results in carbohydrate intolerance, higher insulin levels and insulin insensitivity in the fat and muscle tissues. Weight loss can correct all of these abnormalities in many instances and significantly improves the metabolic disturbance of diabetes in most of cases. Diabetes is characterized by three well-known syndromes, polydipsia (excessive thirst), polyphagia (excessive hunger) and polyuria (excessive urination). Although different medicines are available for treatment of all kinds of diabetes including its complications, however, trend local medicines is increasing day by day due to its non or very less sides effects us well as due to low cost.
Neuro Physiological Facilitation Techniques have primarily been used in neurologically compromised patients to improve lung function and achieve better oxygenation.But will these techniques prove equally effective in abdominal surgery patients where impairment of respiration is of a similar nature due to presence of incisions near the diaphragm? -An experimental study using Perioral pressure & Intercostal stretch
Several factors directly or indirectly influence the CYP activity. CYP mediated metabolism are likely to be potential candidates for drug interaction.Many drug interactions are a result of induction or inhibition of CYP enzymes. Herbal medicines that modulate intestinal and hepatic CYPs can alter the bioavailability and clearance of co –administered drugs. The diabetic patients have reduced immune system where as Piperine which have significant immunomodulatory activity. Hence, the combination has a beneficial effect in diabetic condition in view of the side effects of pioglitazone.Hence, the combination has a beneficial effect in diabetic condition, but special concern has to be observed in diabetic patients with cardiovascular complications in view of the side effects of pioglitazone. Hence the present investigation warrants further studies to find out the relevance of this interaction in human beings and postulates the exact mechanism involved.
Dietary habits are one of the most risk factor for development of chronic micro and macro-vascular complications among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This book will assess the effect of dietary habits and socio-demography on glycemic control (HbA1c) and diabetes risk profiles; cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteine, high density lipoproteine, blood pressure and body mass index. In addition, it will examine these risk factors on long term complications of T2DM. Aiming to explore some indicator could play an important role in the alteration of glycemic control (HbA1c), diabetic risk profiles and long term complications among T2DM.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the antidiabetic and antilipidemic property of Terminalia arjuna in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic model rats. 50% ethanol extract of stem bark of Terminalia arjuna were administered 1.25gkg-1 body weight for 21 consecutive days to type 2 diabetic male Long-Evans rats. Ethanol extract of T. arjuna significantly (p>0.05) improved oral glucose tolerance in type 2 rats in comparison to control group at the end of study period. It was also found that fasting serum glucose level decreased significantly (p>0.05) compared to water control after 21 days of feeding of T. arjuna. However, no change was observed in the liver glycogen content and serum insulin level at the end of the study period. In addition to hypoglycemic effect of T. arjuna, beneficial effect was also observed in lipid profile. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride were decreased significantly by (p>0.01) and (p>0.001) at the end of the study period. Administration of Glibenclamide (5 mgkg-1) also produced significant reduction (p>0.01) in serum glucose concentration in type 2 diabetic rats.
Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) as an impairment of cardiovascular autonomic regulation is one of the earliest complications of diabetes mellitus. In complex etiopathogenesis of CAN persistent hyperglycemia, genetic predisposition, immunologic and epigenetic factors play role. Presented work is focused on null/wild gene polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1 and T1. GST enzymes are involved in the degradation of various exogenous and endogenous compounds including organic hydroperoxides (protecting cells from peroxide-induced cell death), in the synthesis of inflammatory mediators and act as potential regulators of apoptosis. According to the published studies, GST M1/T1 gene polymorphisms may be regarded as risk factor for development of diabetes and chronic diabetic complications however the association between GST gene polymorphisms and CAN has not been described till now. The aim of this work is to extend the knowledge of the impact of GST M1/T1 gene polymorphisms on CAN in population of adolescents with type 1 diabetes and refute the myth that diabetes duration and compensation are the only factors influencing the onset of chronic diabetic complications.
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most serious healthcare concerns of 21st century and is characterized by deficiency or inaction of insulin. Exogenous insulin is quite helpful in ameliorating these conditions. But it fails to produce a well-controlled glycemic condition in association with variable dietary intake and physical activity. Episodes of severe hypoglycemia leading to deleterious cerebral impact are common during insulin administration. Thus there is a need to develop antidiabetic drugs that are effective, safe, produce a well-controlled normoglycemia and prevent the long-term complications. In searching for effective drugs in diabetes, vanadium emerged as an orally active insulin-mimetic agent. However, it was soon discovered that vanadium has several toxic effects on the animals and thus seriously undermined its antidiabetic potential. Efforts have been made to reduce the toxic effects of vanadate without compromising with its antidiabetic properties. The present study explores the possibility of using low doses of Vanadate (0.2mg/ml) in combination with Trigonella seed powder (TSP) and evaluate their effect on glucose metabolism in animal models of diabetes.