Efficiency can be measured by the relationship between inputs available in the organization and outputs earned by the organization. Measuring the relative efficiency is a verification of the organization and it tries to understand the position at present. Based on the efficiency measurement one can understand the organization is efficient or not? and also identify the reason behind the inefficient. It also suggest that the inefficient organization where it should give attention for improvement either in technology nor capability.
This book examines, using DEA, the productivity performance trends of the Indian commercial banks for the post transition period: 1997 – 2001. Our broad empirical findings are indicative in many ways. First, the increasing average annual trends in technical efficiency for all ownership groups indicate an affirmative gesture about the effect of the reform process on the performance of the Indian banking sector. Second, the higher cost efficiency accrual of private banks over nationalized banks indicate that nationalized banks, though old, do not reflect their learning experience in their cost minimizing behavior due to inefficiency factors arising from government ownership. This finding also highlights the possible stronger disciplining role played by the capital market indicating a strong link between market for corporate control and efficiency of private enterprise assumed by property right hypothesis. And, finally, concerning the scale elasticity behavior, the technology and market-based results differ significantly supporting the empirical distinction between returns to scale and economies of scale, often used interchangeably in the literature.
With economic and financial sector reforms introduced in India since the early 1990s, the operating environment for banks in India has undergone a rapid change. Foreign banks have been operating in India for more than a century and a half. The operations of FBs received a considerable boost during the post-reform era beginning with the year 1993. In the emerging financial and banking scenario of openness and promotion of greater economic efficiency, the need for an expanded role and operation of foreign banks has gained further backing in India. The policy stance towards foreign banks has greatly been liberalised and the latest in the series being the declaration of the ‘Road Map of FBs'' by the RBI implying completely new avenues for growth and different prototypes of representations in India. In this context, it would be important to assess the financial health of the foreign banks. The present study seeks to pinpoint the strength and weaknesses of the select foreign banks under study and to have comparisons with the domestic banks in terms of growth, profitability and operational efficiency.
The global market for foreign exchange is larger in turnover than any other market, including global equities and typically extremely liquid has changed dramatically over the past several years. Although both fundamental and technical analysis have the same goal of predicting a price or movement in FOREX market, they differ greatly. While technical analyst studies the effect, the fundamentalist studies the cause of market movement. Many successful traders combine both approaches for superior results. Considering the above mentioned facts, the present study is undertaken, with the aim of enhancing the existing knowledge base in the field of FOREX market technical analysis. The present study is undertaken to empirically evaluate the efficiency of foreign exchange market in respect of nine currency pairs, viz., EURUSD, USDJPY, USDCHF, GBPUSD, USDCAD, EURGBP, EURJPY, AUDUSD and NZDUSD as well as the importance of currency pairs, time frames and technical indicators in making regular returns and also making return after adjusting for risk associated with trading. It is concluded that there is non-randomness in the daily exchange rate return series of all nine selected currency pairs.
Training programmes are expensive and there is a needto assess their effectiveness. The last stage of thetraining and development process deals with theevaluation of results which is a crucial step.However, systematic evaluation of the trainingprogrammes through appraisal of performance, moraleimprovement and increased efficiency is done in a feworganizations. There is a need to examinewhether employees work effectively through gainedskills and knowledge from training. Hence an attemptis made to study the “Evaluation of TrainingProgrammes in India Post”The major findings are that the learning objectivesdeals with KSA’s (Knowledge, Skill and Attitude) thatthe trainees are expected to acquire throughout thetraining programme and the trainees may not haveutilized the gained skills properly in their workplace and secondly the trainees’ superior may notallow the trainees to use the skills fully. Bothreasons are applicable to India Post. Theeffectiveness of the model proposed is 78.80% and themodel is significant at 1% level.The mantra for effective training should be, learnfast, remember often and apply with sincerity.
Functional traits are the characters of an animal which increase the efficiency not by higher output of product but by reduced cost of input. Udder and reproductive disorders are the imperative functional traits which causes major losses in milk production. Reproduction disorders affect the herd life, reproductive efficiency of cows and are responsible for removal of the cow from the herd. Crossbred cows appear to be more prone to infections and disorders as compared to indigenous breeds. Karan Fries cow is a crossbred of Holstein Friesian and Tharparkar (India) developed at National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India. Incidence of abortion, still birth, dystocia, retained foetal membrane, metritis, endometritis, anoestrus, repeat breeding, pyometra and other reproductive disorders in Karan Fries cows were evaluated. Production and reproduction performance traits were found to be influenced by reproductive disorders. Repeatability of anoestrus and abortion were moderate to high in second and third lactation. Metritis was the most severe reproduction disorder. Overall incidence of reproduction disorders was lower in F1 than interbred genetic group of Karan Fries cows.
In the pages of this book, Eng Robert Otieno presents his research work in seaport efficiency evaluation. He focuses on four major seaports of Liaoning Province of P. R. China. He compares port resources, throughput and management approaches i.e. level of privatization across the ports and analyzes their influence on technical efficiency of each of the seaports. The aspect of time variance of technical efficiency based on change of resources, throughput and level of private/public participation is captured in the book. The book uses a combination of DEA and stochastic frontier production function model to analyze efficiency characteristics. The findings of the research presented in this book indicate that big seaports like Port of Dalian have low technical efficiencies compared to relatively smaller seaports like Dandong. The optimal level of privatization is found to be 75.27%. The book shows that port management should not only aim to focus on expansion but also ensure effective resource utilization and appropriate level of privatization in order to boost technical efficiency. This is a must read for logistics and supply chain practitioners, students and researchers.
The IT services industry is playing an active role in the Indian economy, contributing to significant new employment generation and exports from the country. The rapid strides made by the industry and its comparatively better performance with respect to the other sectors of the economy, has attracted the attention of researchers in the recent past. However, there exists a gap in the empirical work pertaining to the Indian domestic software industry, especially with regards to firm performance. This study attempts to fill this gap, looking at the issues empirically and focusing on IT services firm performance instead of industry performance. This book is concerned with the performance measurement to appraise the efficiency, effectiveness and performance using a sample of 40 Indian Domestic Software firms operating in India by using CCR and BCC Models in a two-stage performance evaluation model.
In most developing countries, the concept of measurement of efficiencies of water and sanitation services has so far been non-existent. This book presents a pioneer effort in evolving frameworks for measuring efficiencies in a sector that affects the quality of lives of millions of people. The book presents Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA), Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), and a Scorecard technique based frameworks for evaluating efficiencies of water supply, wastewater and solid waste management services, exemplified for the case of Madhya Pradesh State in India. The findings relate to identification of indicators for efficiency evaluation of water supply, wastewater, and municipal solid waste management services, computation of inefficiencies, ranking of utilities, identification of benchmarks, and estimation of possible savings. The results have been discussed in the context of sector policy issues. The book will be of use to policy makers, water and sanitation Regulators, water supply managers and administrators, to general public, and to all other sector stakeholders.
This book is about an evaluation of the primary school art curriculum in Zimbabwe and it is concerned with problems relating to human and material resources affecting the operational efficiency of the art curriculum. To achieve this goal, the book traces the psychological and philosophical orientation of the art curriculum in pre and post independent Zimbabwe.The book is a culmnination of ideas gathered through interviews and document analysis. In order to increase the operational efficiency of the art curriculum, the book recommends improvements ranging from the need for staff development programmes and workshops to greater need for active partcipation of primary school administrators and teachers in the evaluation and development of curriculum materials. The book also encourages involvement of support agencies in curriculumdevelopment issues and the professional growth of art educators.The author hopes that ideas contained in this book will be useful to curricularists and practioners in their endevour to achieve best practice.
Banking has experienced dramatic changes over the last decade. Deregulation, financial innovation and automation have been major forces impacting on the performance of the banking sector. In this context banks are become increasingly concerned about controlling & analyzing these costs & revenues, as well as measuring the risks taken to produce acceptable norms. Till now, the performance of banks has become a major concern of planners and policy makers in India.This book will give an insight to the operation of Indian Banks after the liberalization period.The efficiency scores are being measured through Data Envelopment Analysis technique.
Building information modelling (BIM) processes, technologies, and applications are rapidly re-engineering the work methodology in the AEC & FM industry. BIM provides a more interactive and integrated approach to design, construction and operation of facilities and aims to provide high end benefits for all. Energy efficient buildings with minimal or positive environmental impacts are considered important in countries worldwide and energy efficiency evaluation is one of the major fields that BIM supports today. The book describes the present scenario with the help of the two case studies and a comparative analysis of the major Energy Performance Evaluation tools. Important aspects such as transition of BIM to BEM and its contents such as building energy management, building performance indicators etc have been discussed. Some light has also been shed on the present building regulation in Germany, since the site location of both the buildings included in the studies is Berlin, Germany. The paper provides a comprehensive insight and points out various aspects that can be used for improvement of the tools, for better energy management and to achieve highly energy efficient buildings.
In the recent years there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine and these drugs are gaining popularity both in developing and developed countries because of their natural origin and less side effects In India, about 80% of the rural population uses medicinal herbs or indigenous systems of medicine. Polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, polysaccharides and alkaloids are the major chemical moieties present in the plant species of various families and these major secondary metabolites tend to reverse or delay the diabetic complications.
Onion is one of the most important vegetable crops grown in all countries. In Egypt, onion is a major export crop. The total cultivated area of onion is about 146336 feddan (61485.7 ha). This area produced about 1.9 million Mg .The aim of the present study is to design, fabricate and evaluate an onion peeling machine to be used in small and medium production units, such as restaurants, hotels and small onion drying units. It could be used for large production units with some modifications, such as onion drying factories.An onion peeler was evaluated. Some physical properties of onion related to peeling process were determined. Peeler productivity, peeling efficiency index, actual peeling efficiency, the removed peels percentage, the onion mechanical injury and energy requirements as affected by onion bulb size, drum rotational speed, peeling residence time and batch load were investigated. The peeler performance was improved by adding water and air pressure systems; the peeler was also evaluated under the same previous operational parameters. Economical assessment of the onion peeling machine was carried out to determine the final peeling cost at different operational parameters.
The financial development was given impetus with the adoption of social control over banks in 1967 and nationalisation of 14 major scheduled banks in July 1969. Since then, the banking system has formed the core of the Indian financial system. In the three decades following the first round of nationalisation (the second round consists of 6 commercial banks in April 1980), aggregate deposits of scheduled commercial banks have increased at a compound annual average growth rate of 17.8 per cent during this period (1969 to 1999), while bank credit expended at the rate of 16.3 per cent per annum. Money being lever for economic development, financial sector reform is considered as integral part of the liberalization policy strategy under the new economic policy.Financial sector reforms mainly aim at eliminating distortion in the financial markets induced by government interventions and encouraging competition to improve efficiency of financial intermediations. The financial sector reforms also require to ensure that the financial sector operates on the basis of operational flexibility and functional autonomy with a view to enhancing efficiency, productivity, sustainability.