Electric vehicles offer a method of transportation where the energy generation process is moved from the on-board engine to the electrical generation system. The Canadian electrical generation mix has a significant portion of low carbon and renewable sources. This low environmental impact source of energy is then transferred to electric vehicles when they are charged from the grid. This thesis analyses the energy flow for such electric vehicles, particularly buses. Battery systems and charger technology, core to the vehicle operations, are examined; looking at energy flow from plug to wheels. Field data collected from on-board recordings and simultaneous GPS signals were used to develop a new predictive model for an electric bus. The mathematical model for the electric bus was then compared with a similar sized diesel engine vehicle model using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). The operational energy cost of the electric bus is contrasted with a similarly sized Compression Ignition (CI) engine bus and was found to be very favourable. Also cost effective battery system upgrades to the present system were analyzed for improved return on investment.
Mother-tongue plays a paramount role in child’s development. It is the heart and soul of child's education. It is the foundation on which the personality of the child is built. The study of mother-tongue is of dire necessity on psychological, intellectual, emotional and cultural grounds. It is our duty to adopt and adapt mother-tongue as medium of all non-linguistic subjects, thereby making it easy and interesting for the child to learn these subjects. Teachers rarely use teaching technology like multimedia, instructional technology etc. They adopt lecture cum text book method-a boring procedure. Students are made to mug up even stories and poems. Students are passive partners in the learning process. No attempt is made to arouse their creativeness or encourage their self-expression so what they learn is poor learning. This calls for drastic changes. Language learning is a part of education in the wider sense. One of the important causes for the deterioration of the standard of mother-tongue (Punjabi) in Punjab is inadequate provision of teaching aids. In the present study, an attempt has been made to arrive at some precise conclusions.