No other known material comes closer to an ideal one-dimensional system than single-wall carbon nanotubes. In this dissertation, we explore the fascinating new physics characterizing these new nanostructures. After a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the electronic and optical properties of carbon nanotubes, we present our major experimental result: at low-temperature, carbon nanotubes can act as perfect single photon sources. This observation has catapulted nanotubes to a promising candidate for the generation of tunable single photons in quantum information applications. We then investigate the interaction of localized optical excitations with the mechanical vibrations of the nanotube. Here again, the low-dimensionality of the system yields to dramatic effects with no analog in bulk materials. Motivated by the unique properties of carbon nanostructures, we also present a proposal for all-optical spin manipulation in nanotubes and explore the possibility of optomechanical cooling of a nanotube resonator to the quantum ground state. This book brings the reader on a journey through the latest developments in quantum optics with carbon nanostructures.
This volume is devoted to mostly to nanotubes, unique synthetic nanoscale quantum systems whose physical properties are often singular (i.e. record-setting). Nanotubes can be formed from a myriad of atomic or molecular species, the only requirement apparently being that the host material or wall fabric be configurable as a layered or sheet-like structure. Nanotubes with sp2-bonded atoms such as carbon, or boron together with nitrogen, are the champions of extreme mechanical strength, electrical response (either highly conducting or highly insulating), and thermal conductance. Carbon nanotubes can be easily produced by a variety of synthesis techniques, and for this reason they are the most studied nanotubes, both experimentally and theoretically. Boron nitride nanotubes are much more difficult to produce and only limited experimental characterization data exist. Indeed, for boron nitride nanotubes, theory is well ahead of experiment. For these reasons this volume deals largely with carbon nanotubes. Conceptually, the "building block" for a carbon nanotube is a single sheet of graphite, called graphene. Recently, it has become possible to experimentally isolate such single sheets (either on a substrate or suspended). This capability has in turn fueled many new theoretical and experimental studies of graphene itself. It is therefore fitting that this volume contains also a chapter devoted to graphene.- Comprehension- Overview- Highlights in the field
"Carbon Nanotubes" provides an extensive description of carbon nanotubes in terms of their structures, properties, synthesis, characterization and applications. This book includes a comprehensive review of synthesis methods of single and multi-wall carbon tubes and their technological applications in microscopes, sensors and microelectronics. It is presenting basic knowledge appealing to graduate and postgraduate researchers and scientists.
A thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor was built and used to grow vertically and horizontally aligned carbon nanotube arrays. The as-grown nanotubes were investigated on a single tube level using near-infrared photoluminescence (PL) microscopy and PL excitation spectroscopy as well as Raman, atomic force and scanning electron microscopy. The PL of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) in different surroundings and at temperatures down to 4 K was analyzed. Ultralong CVD-grown nanotubes were imaged on Si/SiO2 to determine their chirality and to check structural integrity along the nanotube length. Furthermore, ultralong SWNTs were manipulated (moved, bent and fractured) employing an AFM. Finally, a new approach to determine relative abundances and PL quantum yields of semiconducting SWNTs in dispersions is presented, which is based on statistical counting of individual nanotubes by means of PL spectroscopy.
The work described in this thesis concerns the filling of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) with semiconductor compounds (HgTe, HgxCd1-xTe, InSb, SnSe). Once successfully introduced into the SWNTs, the fillings were structurally analysed via focal series restoration High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). For each system, models were proposed, simulated and compared with original restored phase images.
Carbon nanotubes are interesting nanomaterials of cylindrical shapes and are structurally equivalent to a seamless folded single sheet of graphite having diameters in some tens of nanometers. They are fascinating for mechanical engineers because of their nearly highest per unit mass Young’s modulus and strength. They were first synthesized by Iijima in 1991 and ever since then enormous effort was dedicated to characterize them and find their utility in engineering applications. Multiwalled Carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are multi-layered single wall cylinders with common axis and are more easily available. The work presented here is aimed to give an elementary exposure to the methods used by experimentalists to measure the dimensions of carbon nanotubes in all forms of single walled carbon nanotubes(SWCNTs) and MWCNTs including those that are functionalized. The use of Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Nanomanipulator to measure the diameter and length as well as to study the stress-strain relations is demonstrated and the results are analysed to highlight the methodology. A simple theoretical understanding of the structure of all chirality Carbon Nanotubes has also been made.
This book addresses the inherent difficulty in synthesizing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with well-defined electronic and solubility properties through functionalization, introduction of dopants, topological defects, and intercalation of metals. Depending on the desired application, one can modify the electronic and solubility properties of SWCNTs through an appropriate introduction of imperfections. This scheme broadens the application areas of SWCNTs.
Carbon Nanotubes play a special role in the realm of carbon nanostructures. Many applications of carbon nanotubes have started coming to Adsorption of Carbon Nanotubes in recent years and this is a research direction of great promise. Therefore, a book with an Adsorption and Desorption in Carbon Nanotubes focus is especially timely. That the authors of the book have many years of experience in Adsorption in Carbon Nanotubes research and in commercial exploitation of carbon nanotubes makes this volume of even greater importance and value, as they share this expertise and experience with students, researchers, and others.
Meta-Nanotubes are a new generation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) which result from the chemical transformation of regular CNTs and their subsequent combination with foreign materials (atoms, molecules, chemical groups, nanocrystals) by various ways such as functionalisation, doping, filling, and substitution. These new nanomaterials exhibit enhanced or new properties, such as reactivity, solubility, and magnetism, which pristine CNTs do not possess. Their many applications include electronic and optoelectronic devices, chemical and biosensors, solar cells, drug delivery, and reinforced glasses and ceramics. Carbon Meta-Nanotubes: Synthesis, Properties and Applications discusses these third generation carbon nanotubes and the unique characteristics they possess. Beginning with a general overview of the subject, this book covers the five main categories of meta-nanotubes, namely: Doped Carbon Nanotubes Functionalised Carbon Nanotubes Decorated or Coated Carbon Nanotubes Filled Carbon Nanotubes Heterogeneous Nanotubes Providing unparalleled coverage of these third generation or meta-nanotubes, and possibilities for future development, this book is essential for anyone working on carbon nanotubes.
Quantum Optics in Phase Space provides a concise introduction to the rapidly moving field of quantum optics from the point of view of phase space. Modern in style and didactically skillful, Quantum Optics in Phase Space prepares students for their own research by presenting detailed derivations, many illustrations and a large set of workable problems at the end of each chapter. Often, the theoretical treatments are accompanied by the corresponding experiments. An exhaustive list of references provides a guide to the literature. Quantum Optics in Phase Space also serves advanced researchers as a comprehensive reference book. Starting with an extensive review of the experiments that define quantum optics and a brief summary of the foundations of quantum mechanics the author Wolfgang P. Schleich illustrates the properties of quantum states with the help of the Wigner phase space distribution function. His description of waves ala WKB connects semi-classical phase space with the Berry phase. These semi-classical techniques provide deeper insight into the timely topics of wave packet dynamics, fractional revivals and the Talbot effect. Whereas the first half of the book deals with mechanical oscillators such as ions in a trap or atoms in a standing wave the second half addresses problems where the quantization of the radiation field is of importance. Such topics extensively discussed include optical interferometry, the atom-field interaction, quantum state preparation and measurement, entanglement, decoherence, the one-atom maser and atom optics in quantized light fields. Quantum Optics in Phase Space presents the subject of quantum optics as transparently as possible. Giving wide-ranging references, it enables students to study and solve problems with modern scientific literature. The result is a remarkably concise yet comprehensive and accessible text- and reference book – an inspiring source of information and insight for students, teachers and researchers alike.
This book explores the history and structure of carbon nanotubes and the current technologies and methods available for synthesizing, purifying, and assembling carbon nanotubes. Furthermore, the current state of fabrication of carbon nanotubes has not reached a level where they can be commercialized. The most commonly used techniques of chemical vapor deposition (CVD), arc discharge, and laser ablation are discussed in detail with emphasis placed on three criteria: cost, rate, and flexibility. Satisfactory achievement in these three areas will result in the ability to have carbon nanotubes as a product. Assembly methods like nanopelleting and individual transplanting has helped make great strides towards reaching a state of commercialization, but several advancements need to take place with respect to carrying current processes out on a larger scale at affordable prices.
This book will provide researchers with basic knowledge about synthesis of carbon nanotubes and how the several parameters affect their growth. It will also explain the different ways of surface modifications of carbon nanotubes to bring strong adhesion among the filler and matrix. Furthermore, this book will discuss about the fabrication methods of nanocomposites and their structural, thermal and mechanical properties.
The rapid progress in the field of organic conducting materials has found possible applications for sensors and molecular electronics. Among them both conducting polymers and carbon nanotubes, specifically Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes, are good candidates for these applications. Their associations can lead to the synthesis of materials called nanocomposites which resemble the whole physical and chemical properties of the starting ones. This book is therefore focused on the fabrication of nanocomposites materials, based on polyaniline derivatives and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, by means of standardized oxidative polymerization, and the subsequent characterizations by different techniques to asses the physical and chemical properties of the synthesised materials.
This book contents of five chapters, chapter one includes an introduction to the carbon nanotubes, dyes and objective of work. Chapter two includes the discovery and history, structure and size and synthesis methods, applications, purification techniques, functionalization of carbon nanotubes and technologies for color removal and adsorption. Chapter three includes the carbon nanotubes synthesis by catalytic chemical vapor deposition method and a several methods of treatment to increase the efficiency of carbon nanotubes. Chapter four includes two parts the first one is the carbon nanotubes characterizations by several methods such as XRD, SEM, TEM, FTIR, AFM and BET and the second part is the removal of dyes and the effects of several variables on the efficiency of removal and the adsorption isotherms.
This book describes experiments on the synthesis of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), fabrication of ultraclean CNT devices, and study of electronic properties of CNTs with transport measurements. The first part of this work describes the optimization of the synthesis parameters (by chemical vapor deposition - CVD) such as carbon precursors, gas flows, temperature, catalyst for the growth of high quality SWNTs. In all these parameters, the catalyst composition plays a very important role on the high selective growth of SWNTs with a narrow diameter distribution. The second part deals with the nanofabrication of ultra-clean CNT devices and the low temperature (40 mK) transport measurements of these CNT quantum dots. The level spectra of the electrons in the first shell are investigated using inelastic cotunneling spectroscopy in an axial magnetic field, which show a strong negative spin-orbit coupling of electron. We find that the sequence of electron shell filling in our case (?SO < 0) is different from which would be obtained in the pure SU(4) Kondo regime (?SO = 0). Indeed, a pure orbital Kondo effect is observed in N=2e at a finite magnetic field.