Fungicide resistance in fungal plant pathogens causes failure of plant disease control, loss of grower confidence to fungicides, yield losses and environmental pollution. The Pecan scab disease caused by the fungus can generate complete yield loss on susceptible cultivars. Therefore, the effective fungicide treatments through the nut development have great importance. This book presents a unique approach to screen fungicide resistance with a rapid and cost efficient manner which could be used in advisory fungicide resistance programs in pecan scab and other fungal plant pathogens. In vitro fungicide resistance in pecan scab pathogen was screened with micro-colony and conidia germination assays in 48-72 hours. Oppositely, fungicide resistance in pecan scab could be detected in 6 weeks with the costly micro-titer plate technique and 8 weeks with a laborious method. This rapid method could be utilized to screen antimicrobial compounds from the natural sources and antifungal synthetic compounds through the development process. Profound description of the methods micro-colony and micro- titer plate is available through the chapters.
The control of gray mold of small fruits, including blackberry, is caused primarily by Botrytis cinerea in commercial fields and is largely based on fungicide applications. The high risk of fungicide resistance development due to the single-site modes of action of many fungicides combined with the extraordinary genetic diversity of B. cinerea encouraged us to survey populations in South Carolina and neighboring states. A new species, Botrytis caroliniana, as well as the fungicide resistance profile and molecular resistant mechanism was discovered and described in this book.
In today's present, the trend is to use fungicide for the control of fungi, which is harmful for the human consumption. The development of pest resistance and problems of environmental pollution have accompanied excessive reliance on pesticides. These problems can be avoided or minimized by using the natural material products such as medicinal plant extracts.The present studies indicated that Allium sativum extract was able to inhibit the growth of two bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) and two fungi (Aspergillus niger and Alternaria solani) studied.
The aim of this study Budesonide and Salmeterol xinafoate is latest combination of anti asthmatic drugs. It is available in dry powder inhalation and metered dose inhalation form. Present work describes simple, rapid, accurate and precise method for simultaneous determination of Budesonide and Salmeterol xinafoate in metered dose inhalation. The proposed methods were validated as per ICH guidelines.The method presents a reversed phase and stability-indicating method for analysis of Salmeterol Xinafoate and Budesonide drugs in metered dose inhalation.
Candida albicans is an opportunistic diploid fungus that causes infection in immunocompromised and debilitated patients. Wide spread and prolonged usage of azoles in recent years has led to the rapid development of the phenomenon of azole resistance which poses a major threat to antifungal therapy. Various mechanisms contribute towards the development of resistance in Candida such as overexpression of pumps encoded by genes belonging to ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) and Major Facilitator Superfamilies of transporters (MFS), and/or mutations in the target enzyme of azoles etc. Based on several studies, a close interaction between membrane lipids and drug extrusion pump proteins has been realized. It has been shown that the action of antifungals is modulated by subtle modification of the membrane lipid composition.
The purpose of this book is to explain and summarize the beneficial role of AM fungi during normal and abiotic stresses. Now days due to increasing use of chemical fertilizer the soil became saline and barren. Another major problem is low rainfall which increasing drought prone areas. These two things directly affecting yield as well as human health. To overcome these problem microbial inoculants such as Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is the best solution. Role of AM fungi during abiotic stress and growth in Allium sativum. Book covering number of aspect like isolation and culturing of AM fungal species for inoculation to garlic plants, presymbiotic response during AM inoculation, beneficial role in growth, antioxidant defence response during abiotic stress and beneficial role in increasing yield. Role of AM fungi during abiotic stress and growth in Allium sativum is the only book available to inoculate and see the beneficial role of AM fungi during drought, salinity and under field conditions. It is essential reading for researchers to take methodology for using AM fungi under field conditions and also reclamation of saline and drought prone areas.
Biological control of root born plant pathogen is successfully achieved by using arbuscular mycorrhiza seperately and in combination with beneficial antagonistic fungi. Mycorrhizal plants showed a significantly better response when exposed to pathogens as compared to those which did not had a prior inoculum of arbuscular mycorrhiza. Plants when inoculated with beneficial antagonistic fungi like Trichoderma along with arbuscular mycorrhiza, the response was further enhanced. Significant results have been obtained by altering soil and other conditions while manipulating the use of AM and other beneficial antagonistic fungi. The results have shown that the soil mix, which could retain lesser moisture, provides conducive conditions for mycorrhizal fungi and therefore better control of plant diseases. In another segment of the present study pretreatment of seeds/fungal cultures with IAA, NAA and Humic Acid was employed as a possible strategy for bioprotection.
The development of fluorescence sensor for detection of cations and anions is a well-established area in modern chemistry because of their immense analytical application in many areas including biology and chemistry. Calixarene based chemosensors have attracted great deal of attention due to their ability to visually sense analytes with high sensitivity as well as fast response time[logy and chemistry. Fluorescence technique is widely used for recognition of cations and anions due to its distinct advantages in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, response time and in situ monitoring. Here in this book, we have proposed easy, sensitive and selective method, having low detection limit and fast response fluorescence sensor for recognition of cations and anions.
The detection and measurement of gamma radiation using materials that are sensitive to such radiation has been a subject of intense investigation. Optical fiber is found to be a good choice in this regard due to greater sensitivity at different dose levels compared to bulk glass dosimeters. The major advantage in using the fiber is that the radiation sensitivity can be adjusted to the dose or dose rate by selecting suitable fiber design, composition and operating wavelength. In addition, the fibers feature a small weight and transverse size, as well as immunity to electromagnetic interferences. So the dosimeter dimensions can be very small within the area (approx. dia around 3cm ) of wristwatch. The objective of the present thesis work is to develop suitable radiation sensitive optical fibers which can be used as radiation sensor for fiber optic dosimetry application.
Sweetpotato is an important food crop since it is drought tolerant. However, its production is limited by viral, fungal and bacterial infections. Use of synthetic chemicals to manage such infections has not been effective because of pathogenic resistance, potential danger to both humans and environment, and the cost involved. In order to fully exploit the potential of the sweetpotato crop, there is need for rapid and sensitive virus detection techniques and affordable, readily available, sustainable, and environmentally friendly means of managing the infections.
Present research work embodies collection of oil seed samples from different store houses, market places, godowns, fields from different districts of Marathwada region of Maharashtra state (India). For detection of seed mycoflora associated with seed samples, autoclaved Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), Glucose Nitrate Agar (GNA), Czapek Dox Agar (CZA) and Rose Bengal Agar (RBA) media were used for isolation. Among isolated fungi, 10 fungi were screened for further study on the basis of their dominance of occurrence on oilseeds. These fungi are Alternaria dianthicola, Curvularia lunata, Curvularia pellescens, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium equiseti, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium chrysogenum and Trichoderma viride. In another part of research work, physico-chemical changes in biodeteriorated oilseeds and oil due to storage fungi were studied. Further, some botanicals and plant products were screened to evaluate their fungitoxic properties against storage fungi.
A study was conducted to observe the breeding performance with maturing stages and nursery practices of the threatened indigenous fish species Labeo gonius, Labeo bata and Cirrhinus reba at Arabpur Fish Farm (Longitude: 89°12?15? East; Latitude: 23°10?30? North), Jessore, Bangladesh during 1998 to 2002. Trial doses of PG used for induced breeding of Labeo gonius, Labeo bata and Cirrhinus reba were 0.5 to 5.0; 1.0 and 2.0 to 4.0mgPG in the first dose, and 4.0 to 8.0; 1.0 to 8.0 and 00 to 7.0mg in second dose for female, respectively. The male fishes were administered only a single dose of 2.0; 1.5 and 1.0mgPG, respectively. Induced breeding can successfully be done in Labeo gonius with 3.0mg of PG/kg body weight in first dose and 7.0mg in second dose for female and a single dose of 2.0mg for male for virgin fish; in Labeo bata with 1.0mg of PG/kg body weight in first dose and 5.0mg in second dose for female and a single dose of 1.5mg for male of virgin fish; in Cirrhinus reba with 2.0mg of PG/kg body weight in first dose and 6.0mg in second dose for female and a single dose of 1.0mg for male of virgin fish.
Invasive disease due to Haemophilus influenzae typeb (Hib) is common in both HIV infected and un-infected children and immunisation with Hib conjugate vaccines is recommended. However, a few studies done showed that HIV infection blunts antibody response to childhood vaccines. The main objective of this study was to assess the ability of both HIV infected and un-infected Ugandan infants seen at Mulago hospital to mount protective antibody responses and highlight some of the factors that affect response. 159 infants were recruited; 8 were lost to follow up. Of the 151 analyzed, 53 were HIV infected and 98 un-infected. The serum antibody responses were determined by ELISA just before the 3rd dose and a minimum of one month after the dose. 81.6% of the HIV un-infected and 56.6% of the HIV infected achieved protective antibodies after the 3rd dose. 3 doses were better than 2 for both groups. Independent predictors for inadequate antibody response were HIV infection and splenomegally in an HIV infected infant Vitamin A had a potentiating effect on response in infants above 6 months. The study results formed a basis for evaluating the efficacy of the Hib conjugate vaccine in the country.
Gliomas are refractory to chemotherapy because of acquired resistance, which is associated with changes in important cellular processes, such as cell cycle kinetics and cell death. The mechanistic relationship between resistance markers and failure of chemotherapy remains to be elucidated. To that end, identification of biological systems and their interactions is of great promise. We developed a mathematical model to provide a quantitative distinction between the influence of chemotherapy on cell cycle arrest and cell death from dose response curves and also applied this methodology to track the acquisition resistance to chemotherapy. We have also generated a panel of glioma cell lines with acquired resistance to chemotherapy and performed gene expression profiling and functional network analysis to unravel molecular pathways implicated in resistance. Our results provide insights into molecular pathways involved in resistance to carmustine in vitro. If they prove to hold for gliomas in human patients, these results can point the way towards improved therapeutic regimens that act upon NF?B mediated cell survival module in concert with cell cycle checkpoint abrogating agents.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are widespread and agronomically important plant symbiont and often stimulate plant uptake of nutrients such as P, Zn, Cu, and Fe in deficient soils and increases resistance of plants to heavy metals and salts. Plants with coarsely branched roots and with few or no root hairs are expected to be more dependent on mycorrhizal fungi than are plants with finely branched root systems. Scanty information is available on the role of AM fungi on the growth and nutrient uptake of maize especially in soils of India which are generally phosphorus deficient or have an insoluble form. AM mycorrhizae are involved in P nutrition of maize and an understanding of their functioning will assist us in modifying management practices to maximize economic returns through increased fertilizer efficiency. Despite the fact that AM fungal colonization promotes P or N nutrition of host plants independently, the interaction between P and N has been rarely studied in the maize- mycorrhizal system. Hence, an attempt is made to study the influence of graded levels of inorganic (N,P) fertilizers and mycorrhizal inoculum in increasing the productivity and the quality of hybrid maize.