Part of the Zoological Society of London's Conservation Science and Practice Series, Applied Population and Community Ecology evaluates theory in population and community ecology using a case study of feral pigs, birds and plants in the high country of south-eastern Australia. In sequence, the book reviews the relevant theory and uses long-term research over a quarter of a century on the population ecology of feral pigs and then community ecology of birds and plants, to evaluate the theory. The book brings together into one volume, research results of many observational, experimental and modelling studies and directly compares them with those from related studies around the world. The implications of the results for future wildlife management are also discussed. Intended readers are ecologists, graduate students in ecology and wildlife management and conservation and pest managers.
Sir Arthur Tansley was the leading figure in ecology for the first half of the 20th century, founding the field, and forming its first professional societies. He was the first President of the British Ecological Society and the first chair of the Field Studies Council. His work as a botanist is considered seminal and he is recognized as one of the giants of ecology throughout the world. Ecology underpins the principles and practices of modern conservation and the maintenance of biodiversity. It explains the causes of, and offers solutions to, problems of climate change. Yet ecology is a young science, barely 100 years old. Its origins lie in phytogeography, the naming and mapping of plants. Shaping Ecology is a book about a multi-faceted man whose friends included Bertrand Russell, Marie Stopes, Julian Huxley, GM Trevelyan, and Solly Zuckerman. Historical context is provided by Tansley's family for his parents moved in the Fabian-socialist world of John Ruskin and Octavia Hill, both instrumental in the foundation of the National Trust. While Britain was relatively slow to protect its green spaces and wildlife, it did establish in 1913 the first professional Ecological Society in the world. Tansley was its President. Organising the British Vegetation Committee and initiating a series of International Phytogeographic Excursions, he changed phytogeography into ecology.
Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/vandermaarelfranklin/vegetationecology. Vegetation Ecology, 2nd Edition is a comprehensive, integrated account of plant communities and their environments. Written by leading experts in their field from four continents, the second edition of this book: covers the composition, structure, ecology, dynamics, diversity, biotic interactions and distribution of plant communities, with an emphasis on functional adaptations; reviews modern developments in vegetation ecology in a historical perspective; presents a coherent view on vegetation ecology while integrating population ecology, dispersal biology, soil biology, ecosystem ecology and global change studies; tackles applied aspects of vegetation ecology, including management of communities and invasive species; includes new chapters addressing the classification and mapping of vegetation, and the significance of plant functional types Vegetation Ecology, 2nd Edition is aimed at advanced undergraduates, graduates and researchers and teachers in plant ecology, geography, forestry and nature conservation. Vegetation Ecology takes an integrated, multidisciplinary approach and will be welcomed as an essential reference for plant ecologists the world over.
Applied Urban Ecology: A Global Framework explores ways in which the environmental quality of urban areas can be improved starting with existing environmental conditions and their dynamics. Written by an internationally renowned selection of scientists and practitioners, the book covers a broad range of established and novel approaches to applied urban ecology. Approaches chosen for the book are placed in the context of issues such as climate change, green- and open-space development, flood-risk assessment, threats to urban biodiversity, and increasing environmental pollution (especially in the “megacities” of newly industrialized countries). All topics covered were chosen because they are socially and socio-politically relevant today. Further topics covered include sustainable energy and budget management, urban water resource management, urban land management, and urban landscape planning and design. Throughout the book, concepts and methods are illustrated using case studies from around the world. A closing synopsis draws conclusions on how the findings of urban ecological research can be used in strategic urban management in the future. Applied Urban Ecology: A Global Framework is an advanced textbook for students, researchers and experienced practitioners in urban ecology and urban environmental research, planning, and practice.
The Banggai cardinalfish, Pterapogon kauderni, is a fascinating species that possesses a series of remarkable biological characteristics making it unique among coral reef fishes. It has been the focus of studies in reproduction, ecology, population genetics and evolution. In addition, since its rediscovery in the late 1990s, it has become tremendously popular in the international ornamental fish trade, and indiscriminate collecting has led to its inclusion in the 2007 IUCN Red List as an endangered species. This book is divided into three main parts: a general introduction to the fish, including a historical synopsis with an overview of the Banggai Archipelago; a comprehensive treatment of the species’ natural history (distribution, morphology, reproduction, embryology, ecology, genetics, systematics and evolution); an account of the conservation of the species, including descriptions of its fishery, attempts to protect it under CITES, and introduction programmes. The book also includes an appendix offering information on captive breeding, juvenile mortality reduction, and common diseases. This book is a unique resource for ichthyology students and researchers working on fish biology, ecology and conservation, and for marine ornamental fish hobbyists and aquarium professionals. Visit www.wiley.com/go/vagelli/cardinalfish to access the figures and tables from the book.
This book explains the ecology of viruses by examining their interactive dynamics with their hosting species (in this volume, in animals), including the types of transmission cycles that viruses have evolved encompassing principal and alternate hosts, vehicles and vectoring species. Examining virology from an organismal biology approach and focusing on the concept that viral infections represent areas of overlap in the ecologies of the involved species, Viral Ecology is essential for students and professionals who either may be non-virologists or virologists whose previous familiarity has been very specialized.
Evolving from years of teaching experience by one of the top experts in vegetation ecology, Data Analysis in Vegetation Ecology aims to explain the background and basics of mathematical (mainly multivariate) analysis of vegetation data. The book lays out the basic operations involved in the analysis, the underlying hypotheses, aims and points of views. It conveys the message that each step in the calculations has a specific, straightforward meaning and that patterns and processes known by ecologists often find their counterpart in mathematical operations and functions. The first chapters introduce the elementary concepts and operations and relate them to real-world phenomena and problems. Later chapters concentrate on combinations of methods to reveal surprising features in data sets. Showing how to find patterns in time series, how to generate simple dynamic models, how to reveal spatial patterns and related occurrence probability maps.
Community ecology: the study of the patterns and processes involving two or more species – has developed rapidly in the last two decades, driven by new and more sophisticated research techniques, advances in mathematical theory and modeling, and the increasing pressure on the environment wrought by humans. Once a purely descriptive science, it is now one of the most forward-looking areas of scientific inquiry. Morin skillfully guides the reader through the main tenets and central concepts of community ecology – competition, predation, food webs, indirect effects, habitat selection, diversity, and succession. In an attempt to introduce the reader to the most balanced coverage possible, Morin includes examples drawn from both the aquatic and terrestrial realm and from both plant and animal species. Balancing theory with experimentation and drawing on exciting new studies to complement the historical foundations of the discipline, he also stresses that both the empirical and theoretical approaches are necessary to drive ecology foward into the new millenium. The final chapter on applied community ecology ably demonstrates how community ecological processes have a wide environmental relevance. Although in its infancy, the application of community ecology to emerging problems in human-dominated ecosystems could mitigate problems as diverse as management strategies for important diseases transmitted by animals and the restoration and reconstruction of viable communities. Required reading for all students and practitioners interested in community phenomena, Community Ecology marks an important contribution to the development of this protean discipline. The first serious textbook for a decade on one of the keystone subdisciplines of ecology. Broad taxonomic and habitat coverage. Section on implications of community ecology for environmental issues.
Systematics: A Course of Lectures is designed for use in an advanced undergraduate or introductory graduate level course in systematics and is meant to present core systematic concepts and literature. The book covers topics such as the history of systematic thinking and fundamental concepts in the field including species concepts, homology, and hypothesis testing. Analytical methods are covered in detail with chapters devoted to sequence alignment, optimality criteria, and methods such as distance, parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. Trees and tree searching, consensus and super-tree methods, support measures, and other relevant topics are each covered in their own sections. The work is not a bleeding-edge statement or in-depth review of the entirety of systematics, but covers the basics as broadly as could be handled in a one semester course. Most chapters are designed to be a single 1.5 hour class, with those on parsimony, likelihood, posterior probability, and tree searching two classes (2 x 1.5 hours).
All life on earth occurs in natural assemblages called communities. Community ecology is the study of patterns and processes involving these collections of two or more species. Communities are typically studied using a diversity of techniques, including observations of natural history, statistical descriptions of natural patterns, laboratory and field experiments, and mathematical modelling. Community patterns arise from a complex assortment of processes including competition, predation, mutualism, indirect effects, habitat selection, which result in the most complex biological entities on earth – including iconic systems such as rain forests and coral reefs. This book introduces the reader to a balanced coverage of concepts and theories central to community ecology, using examples drawn from terrestrial, freshwater, and marine systems, and focusing on animal, plant, and microbial species. The historical development of key concepts is described using descriptions of classic studies, while examples of exciting new developments in recent studies are used to point toward future advances in our understanding of community organization. Throughout, there is an emphasis on the crucial interplay between observations, experiments, and mathematical models. This second updated edition is a valuable resource for advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and established scientists who seek a broad overview of community ecology. The book has developed from a course in community ecology that has been taught by the author since 1983. Figures and tables can be downloaded for free from www.wiley.com/go/morin/communityecology
This book covers the ecological activities of microbes in the biosphere with an emphasis on microbial interactions within their environments and communities In thirteen concise and timely chapters, Microbial Ecology presents a broad overview of this rapidly growing field, explaining the basic principles in an easy-to-follow manner. Using an integrative approach, it comprehensively covers traditional issues in ecology as well as cutting-edge content at the intersection of ecology, microbiology, environmental science and engineering, and molecular biology. Examining the microbial characteristics that enable microbes to grow in different environments, the book provides insights into relevant methodologies for characterization of microorganisms in the environment. The authors draw upon their extensive experience in teaching microbiology to address the latest hot-button topics in the field, such as: Ecology of microorganisms in natural and engineered environments Advances in molecular-based understanding of microbial phylogeny and interactions Microbially driven biogeochemical processes and interactions among microbial populations and communities Microbial activities in extreme or unusual environments Ecological studies pertaining to animal, plant, and insect microbiology Microbial processes and interactions associated with environmental pollution Designed for use in teaching, Microbial Ecology offers numerous special features to aid both students and instructors, including: Information boxes that highlight key microbial ecology issues «Microbial Spotlights» that focus on how prominent microbial ecologists became interested in microbial ecology Examples that illustrate the role of bacterial interaction with humans Exercises to promote critical thinking Selected reading lists Chapter summaries and review questions for class discussion Various microbial interactions and community structures are presented through examples and illustrations. Also included are mini case studies that address activities of microorganisms in specific environments, as well as a glossary and key words. All these features make this an ideal textbook for graduate or upper-level undergraduate students in biology, microbiology, ecology, or environmental science. It also serves as a highly useful reference for scientists and environmental professionals. PowerPoint slides of figures from the book are available for download at: ftp://ftp.wiley.com/public/sci_tech_med/microbial_ecology
Forest soils are the foundation of the entire forest ecosystem and complex, long-term interactions between trees, soil animals, and the microbial community shape soils in was that are very distinct from agricultural soils. The composition, structure, and processes in forest soils at any given time reflect current conditions, as well as the legacies of decades (and even millennia) of interactions that shape each forest soil. Reciprocal interactions are fundamental; vegetation alters soil physical properties, which influence soil biology and chemistry, which in turn influence the growth and success of plants. These dynamic systems may be strongly influenced by intentional and unintentional management, ranging from fire to fertilization. Sustaining the long-term fertility of forest soils depends on insights about a diverse array of soil features and changes over space and time. Since the third edition of this successful book many new interests in forest soils and their management have arisen, including the role of forest soils in sequestering carbon, and how management influences rates of carbon accumulation. This edition also expands the consideration of how soils are sampled and characterized, and how tree species differ in their influence on soil development. Clearly structured throughout, the book opens with the origins of forest soil science and ends with the application of soil science principles to land management. This new edition provides: A completely revised and updated Fourth Edition of this classic textbook in the field A coherent overview of the major issues surrounding the ecology and management of forest soils Global in scope with coverage of soil types ranging from the tropical rainforest soils of Latin America to the boreal forest soils of Siberia New chapters on Management: Carbon sequestration; Evidence-based approaches and applications of geostatistics, GIS and taxonomies A clear overview of each topic, informative examples/case studies, and an overall context for helping readers think clearly about forest soils An introduction to the literature of forest soil science and to the philosophy of forest soil science research This coherent overview of the major issues surrounding the ecology and management of forest soils will be particularly useful to students taking courses in soil science, forestry, agronomy, ecology, natural resource management, environmental management and conservation, as well as professionals in forestry dealing with the productivity of forests and functioning of watersheds.
A checklist of 3,340 spider species belonging to 629 genera and 50 families is provided for Russia and the other post-Soviet republics, namely, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Byelorussia (Belarus), Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldavia (Moldova), Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan), Tajikistan, Turkmenia (Turkmenistan), Ukraine, and Uzbekistan, based on comprehensive literature data covering more than 2,600 sources published between 1770 and June 2013. Calculations of the number of spider species in the post-Soviet republics and different physiographical areas are provided in the introductory part. Each species included in the checklist is supplied with an attribution both to physiographical area(s) and republic(s). The necessary synonymies and valid subspecies are also enlisted, same as nomina dubia and nomina nuda. An alphabetic index of all genera and species names is provided as well. Destined for zoologists, mainly arachnologists and entomologists, as well as for local biologists and naturalists. 1 map, 3 tables, 199 references. KEY WORDS: Aranei, spiders, checklist, Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Byelorussia, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldavia, Moldova, Kirghizia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, physiographical areas.
This book explains the ecology of viruses by examining their interactive dynamics with their hosting species (in this volume, in microbes and plants), including the types of transmission cycles that viruses have evolved encompassing principal and alternate hosts, vehicles, and vectoring species. Examining virology from an organismal biology approach and focusing on the concept that viral infections represent areas of overlap in the ecologies of the involved species, Viral Ecology is essential for students and professionals who either may be non-virologists or virologists whose previous familiarity has been very specialized.
Vegetation Description and Data Analysis: A Practical Approach, Second Edition is a fully revised and up-dated edition of this key text. The book takes account of recent advances in the field whilst retaining the original reader-friendly approach to the coverage of vegetation description and multivariate analysis in the context of vegetation data and plant ecology. Since the publication of the hugely popular first edition there have been significant developments in computer hardware and software, new key journals have been established in the field and scope and application of vegetation description and analysis has become a truly global field. This new edition includes full coverage of new developments and technologies. This contemporary and comprehensive edition of this well-known and respected textbook will prove invaluable to undergraduate and graduate students in biological sciences, environmental science, geography, botany, agriculture, forestry and biological conservation. Fully international approach Includes illustrative case studies throughout Now with new material on: the nature of plant communities; transitional areas between plant communities; induction and deduction of plant ecology; diversity indices and dominance diversity curves; multivariate analysis in ecology. Accessible, reader-friendly style Now with new and improved illustrations