Spiders are potential predators of insects feeding on rice and help in maintaining their population under check. Before this study, no work was carried out about the systematic and diversity of spiders in rice land ecosystem in Northeastern Uttar Pradesh (NEUP). The survey conducted in four district of Gorakhpur Division, viz. Kushinagar, Maharajganj, Gorakhpur and Deoria reveales the presence of 58 species of spiders under 28 genera in 10 families. The book incorporates detail illustrative account, morphological descriptions and morphometry of each spider species with necessary keys for their identification; provides information on their distributional patterns derived from rice-fields located at different places in NEUP; and also deals with their population guilds (e.g., orb weabers, ground runners, stalkers, foliage runners, and ambusers). We hope this book will be helpful as a base for future investigations in the field of systematics and ecology of rice-land spiders in other parts of the world. It will also prove a useful addition to the libraries and to the large section of researchers interested in biosystematics and ecology of spiders, and plant protection.
Effect of pesticide use in the crop fields is now well known. Tea is no exception to this. Idea behind the present discourse is to appreciate the biological potential of spiders in tea ecosystem. As a first step towards biological control attempt has been made to evaluate the spiders present in tea ecosystem irrespective of the use of pesticides. The monograph deals with the taxonomy, distribution, seasonal incidence, etc. of spiders that would ultimately reflect the occurrence of tolerance/susceptible species. The generated data helped proposing a management plan. It is believed the monograph may come out as a primary source for a better IPM.
A checklist of 3,340 spider species belonging to 629 genera and 50 families is provided for Russia and the other post-Soviet republics, namely, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Byelorussia (Belarus), Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldavia (Moldova), Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan), Tajikistan, Turkmenia (Turkmenistan), Ukraine, and Uzbekistan, based on comprehensive literature data covering more than 2,600 sources published between 1770 and June 2013. Calculations of the number of spider species in the post-Soviet republics and different physiographical areas are provided in the introductory part. Each species included in the checklist is supplied with an attribution both to physiographical area(s) and republic(s). The necessary synonymies and valid subspecies are also enlisted, same as nomina dubia and nomina nuda. An alphabetic index of all genera and species names is provided as well. Destined for zoologists, mainly arachnologists and entomologists, as well as for local biologists and naturalists. 1 map, 3 tables, 199 references. KEY WORDS: Aranei, spiders, checklist, Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Byelorussia, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldavia, Moldova, Kirghizia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, physiographical areas.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.), a staple food of more than half of the world population, is grown in a wide range of environments. India has the largest area under rice among the rice growing countries of the world, but ranks second in total production after China. Low yields of rice have been attributed to number of factors. Among them loss caused by insect pests, pathogens, nematodes and mites is important. Of these pests, mites being microscopic are least studied and understood by researchers as well as by rice growers. Among mites, Steneotarsonemus spinki Smiley which belongs to family Tarsonemidae infests flag leaf sheath causing brown discolouration. Infestation of this mite on panicle causes chaffy grains and also discolouration of filled or ill-filled grains resulting in significant reduction in yield of rice crop. Hence the investigations were carried out to study its ecology and management as well.
The socioeconomic transformation among the Fogera Plain people in Northwestern Ethiopia is remarkable. The process of change from predominantly transhumant cattle herding to rice cultivation and irrigation based agriculture is due to external intervention in consideration of the ecology to the east of Lake Tana. Theoretically, the finding of the study goes with broad political economic perspective for the analysis of transformation in rural community.
The Achievement of food security is one of the main challenges of many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. A steadfast increase in rice production can substantially contribute in ameliorating food security. Actually, rice is a staple food for more than half of the world’s population and its consumption is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa. In Cameroon, per capita consumption of rice has increased from 2.3 kg in 1961 to 22.4 kg in 2005. About 87 % of the rice consumed in Cameroon is imported, mean while the natural conditions in the country are favourable for the production of rice to satisfy local demand and for export. The dominant rice cropping systems in Cameroon are irrigated and lowland rainfed agriculture. The main question addressed in this book is “What are the potentialities of Southern Cameroon for upland rice production?” In this study, land evaluation was used to assess the suitability of Southern Cameroon for rice cultivation.
On an exceptional research locality, strongly acidic, nutrient poor and Cu-enriched soils were anthropogenically created in a continental climate and calcareous surrounding. How would Nature, if left to its own, recover from this long-term and large scale pollution which has completely transformed the landscape? Using multivariate approach, space-for time substitution, and a lucky circumstance of highly patterned vegetation and soil gradients, this study sheds new light on ecological principles which underpin spontaneous succession. In particular, it offers new insights into the role of surrounding vegetation under severe environmental filtering, the functional adaptation underlying the observed novel species assemblages, and points out the overwhelming importance of nutrient deficiency on structuring the revegetation process. Finally, the pre-disaster vegetation is not likely to get established even if very high soil Cu are allowed to be leached to background levels. This study offers one interesting “would be” scenario relevant for the praxis of ecological restoration.
For countries whose national economy is highly dependent on agriculture, it is wise to support the agricultural production system with scientific research works. This helps those to shift towards a more productive crop type so as to increase the livelihood of the society. Using the multidisciplinary nature of GIS and its functionality,this book has presented the evaluation of physical land suitability result for rice production in Fogera Woreda, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The research uses the physical parameters, such as Slope, Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), Elevation, Soil and Land use/Land cover of the area. Using Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM), particularly, Ranking method, weighting of parameters has been done. By using Weighted Overlay Analysis, the potential suitability area of the study area is estimated. This gives crucial information for decision makers, agricultural experts, and farmers to take appropriate management practice on the production area.
This study attempts, to measure and compare resource use, efficiency and relative productivity of farming under different tenure conditions in an area of Bangladesh. Sample farmers were classified as owner, owner-cum-tenant and tenant farmers. A total of 90 samples, 30 from each class were selected on the basis of random sampling technique. It is found that total cash expenses as well as total gross costs for producing HYV Boro rice was highest in owner farms and lowest in tenant’s farm. The total cost and gross return is highest in owner-cum-tenant’s own land than in rented in land. Owner operators used more hired labor while owner-cum-tenant farmers and tenant operators used more family labor. However, it was found that owner farmers are more efficient than owner-cum-tenant and tenant farmers. Again, owner-cum-tenants are more efficient in production in the case of his own land than in rented in land. The owner-cum-tenant’s rented in land is more efficient than tenant’s rented in land. From the findings of this research, it may be argued that there is an opportunity for agricultural improvement through reallocation of resources following a series of interrelated reform measures
Впервые составлен каталог пауков Левобережной Украины. Обобщены собственные материалы и литературные данные с 1836 по 2012 г. Список включает 709 видов пауков из 247 родов и 35 семейств. Для каждого вида приводятся литературные и оригинальные указания с территории Левобережной Украины, местообитания в различных природных зонах и подзонах, географическое распространение, ошибочные или сомнительные указания и синонимы, которые были использованы в литературе. 39 видов выведены из предыдущих списков, находки 41 вида требуют подтверждения. Каталог предназначен для зоологов, прежде всего арахнологов, зоогеографов, краеведов и натуралистов.
The dominance of Green Revolution Agriculture practices in coastal areas increased the ion concentration in soil as well as in irrigation water and thus reducing yield both quantitatively and qualitatively and culminated in increased salinity of water and soil. In response to these problems, the emerging Agro-Ecology paradigm suggests organic farming through farmers participation. Based on the local conditions and available natural resources, System of Rice Intensification (SRI) combined with organic inputs appear to be more promising for paddy cultivation in saline soils in the coastal Agro-Ecosystems. These organic farming practices facilitate lower ion concentration and improve the soil ecology and paddy productivity. SRI involves low input (water & nutrient), higher output technology, evolved in Madagascar in 1970s, spread to South and South East Asian countries and currently becoming popular among South Indian farmers.Need for farmers's participation is articulated in terms of efficiency and/or cost-effectiveness, equity in distribution of benefits, sustainability and empowerment of the farmer's community. Hence, the present study was planned through farmer's participation
The Recognition for fight between landless peasants in backlands (Sertao) of Brazil - environmental conflict as land policy possession examines the environmental conflicts as a political category of land claims from the experiences of MST settlements on the high backcountry (Sertao) of Alagoas, in Delmiro Gouveia. We tried to relate this environmental interaction mode with the literature on environmental conflicts (BURSZTYN, 2001, 2008; Little, 2001 Zhouri, 2006, 2008), held perspective of land, conflicts of views and practice on the land as environment of subsistence, material production, culture and other senses. We interviewed some actors among rural workers and made a survey through questionnaires with a portion of the company not involved in the MST in order to draw a picture about what is the land as environmental means and the struggle for land as policy ecological (Little, 2006) in its aspects of social and environmental policy.
Agriculture remains the key to Africa’s economic future while approximately 200 million people are chronically hungry in there, yet. Shortage of cereal supplying locally accounts significantly for this as consequence of poor management of the ecosystems including land use and soil fertility especially, for rice production. In fact, low suitability and unstable rice yield are significantly contributing to food insecurity in Africa occasioning shifting cultivation disturbing native ecosystems in traditional land use. However, sound data are missing for yield gap as well as declining yield in intensified cropping systems according to difference agro-ecologies of Tropical Africa. Insight of agriculture systems services is presented in this book including land use, land tenure, land availability and climatic in relation with food crop production even for marginal crop as wheat in the humid forest of West Africa. Personal opinion of challenges is also included. This book presents the opportunity to reduce food insecurity in Sub-Sahara Africa as awareness for decision makers, scientists and for extension service.There is also academic aspects for capacity building and student training.
The present study compared Sand Forest bird assemblages found in a communal land area with that of the Tembe Elephant Park, and determined the habitat preference and status of selected herbivore species within the Tembe Elephant Park in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The main purpose of the study was to compare Sand Forest bird assemblages found in the Tshanini Community Conservation Area, which is characterised by low levels of human utilisation, with that of the Tembe Elephant Park, which is characterised by wildlife utilisation. This approach was used to determine the biological importance of this communal land area in contributing towards the conservation of the rare Sand Forest habitat. The second purpose of the study was to identify possible competition between selected herbivore species within the Tembe Elephant Park and/or a decrease in numbers of rare species. It is important to protect a viable portion of the preferred habitat of every target species within a reserve, and to keep competition with rare species to a minimum for the long-term survival of the regional biodiversity.